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Author: 詹靜如
CHING-JU CHAN
Thesis Title: 3C理論應用於生產營運之研究-以個案方式探討
The application of 3C theory for production management-an exploratory case study
Advisor: 楊文鐸
Wen-Dwo Yang
Committee: 周碩彥
Shuo-Yan Chou
潘昭賢
Chao-Hsiew Pan
Degree: 碩士
Master
Department: 管理學院 - 管理研究所
Graduate Institute of Management
Thesis Publication Year: 2007
Graduation Academic Year: 95
Language: 中文
Pages: 69
Keywords (in Chinese): 經濟批量模式限制理論製造資源規劃II企業資源規劃先進規劃與排程3C理論
Keywords (in other languages): EOQ, TOC, MRPII, ERP, APS, 3C Theory
Reference times: Clicks: 243Downloads: 0
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  • 自從工業革命後,製造業就一直在追逐交貨的快速與及時性。近年來,隨著資訊及科技的進步及發展,市場的需求也相對應產生快速變化,而企業也面臨外在市場環境的「不確定性」、「複雜性」和「競爭性」等特性。
    但也因為市場需求的快速變化,加上企業內部管理所作業上的問題,造成企業在評估及預測儲存庫存的「數量-多少?」及「時間點-何時?」產生困難;庫存太少,可能造成無法準時交貨而產生顧客不滿意甚而產生客源流失,但庫存太高則可能造成存貨成本過高,而亦因市場快速變化,甚而可能形成呆滯庫存,造成企業成本增加。
    現代化的企業經營,不能再像幾十年前一般,僅靠著人工作業的模式營運,因為放在人腦的資訊若是不透過資訊科技的運用,是無法讓企業的分工如預期般被執行和完成,而傳統的人工作業或是不即時的作業模式,正是企業無法有效管理市場的「不確定性」、「複雜性」和「競爭性」的主因。
    個案公司因其行業的特性,在面對市場需求快速變化及人工作業模式營運的不足下,而面臨到『高庫存量』、『高材料短缺率』及『低客戶滿意度』此三大問題,如何兼顧備料時機,同時又能充分掌握客戶出貨時間,實為零件組裝廠的一大挑戰;為了解決這些問題,該公司階段性的導入MRPII、ERP及APS等管理資訊系統,來幫助企業有效營運管理。
    本研究採用探索性的個案研究,籍由探討個案公司如何導入相關的管理資訊系統來解決『高庫存量』、『高材料短缺率』及『低客戶滿意度』等問題,以使公司獲得更高的營運績效,並與3C理論相印證。


    Since the 19th century Industrial Resolution, what manufacturers have been pursuing is fast and on-time delivery; however, at the age of information technology, market demand changes relatively rapidly, all enterprises have to confront the external market environment, such as uncertainty, complexity and competition.
    Due to the rapid change of market demand, it is a big challenge for companies to do precise inventory planning. Deficient stock volume may cause late delivery and low customer satisfaction or even customer loss, while over inventory may result in high stock cost, obsolete dissipation and in heavy management cost.
    Both human knowledge and information technology are required for modern business management. All data in computer system can be applied completely for every division of the enterprise when it is compared to in human brain. The traditional human operation and “non-just-in-time” operation mode is concerned as the major cause of a firm’s difficulty to fight with the uncertainty, complexity and competition from the market.
    Due to the fierce competitive external market and the inefficient internal human operation, the case company is forced to face the three problems: over stock inventory, serious shorted key component and low customer satisfaction. It is a big challenge for the case company to control their materials to meet customer’s request. The implementation of Management Information System such as MRPII, ERP and APS in different stage is considered as a good solution to this company.
    The research method is exploratory case study research. By the implementation of management information system, the case company improved the conditions of “over stock inventory”, “serious shorted key component” and “low customer satisfaction” as well as reached a better operation performance. It is a good example for 3C theory.

    摘要 i Abstract ii 誌 謝 iii 目錄 iv 圖目錄 vi 表目錄 viii 第一章 緒綸 1 1.1 研究背景 1 1.2 研究動機與目的 2 1.3 論文架構 4 第二章 文獻探討 6 2.1 經濟批量模式(The Economic Lot Size Model) 6 2.2 限制理論(TOC) 10 2.3 企業資源規劃(ERP) 14 2.4 先進規劃與排程(APS) 18 2.5 3C理論 27 第三章 個案公司背景及現況概述 31 3.1 產業概況 31 3.2 個案公司沿革 33 3.3 個案公司管理資訊系統概況 34 第四章 個案公司之現況運作與3C理論之印證 40 4.1 產品設計開發與材料共通性(Commonality) 40 4.1.1 材料共用性: 40 4.1.2 個案公司之共用材料實例: 42 4.1.3 3C理論-共通性(Commonality)之印證: 43 4.2 業務接單和產能與交貨能力(Capacity) 44 4.2.1 LPST、EPST和PST計算: 44 4.2.2 平衡產能作業: 45 4.2.3 業務接單作業的改變: 47 4.2.4 3C理論-產能與交貨能力(Capacity)之印證 48 4.3 採購作業與市場需求預測而補充材料(Consumption) 49 4.3.1 採購相關時點: 49 4.3.2 採購模式: 49 4.3.3 3C理論-隨市場變化補充材料(Consumption)之印證 51 第五章 結論與建議 53 參考文獻 55

    一、中文文獻
     梁毓琪,「考慮系統導入成本下及時供貨與經訂購批量模式選擇之研究」,東吳大學會計學系研究所,碩士論文,2006。
     高德拉特,「關鍵鏈-TOC式專案管理」,羅嘉穎譯,羅鎮坤審訂,力天香港有限公司出版,1997。
     高德拉特,「絕不是靠運氣」,周怜利譯,羅鎮坤審訂,天下遠見出版公司出版,1997。
     王立志,「系統化運籌與供應鍊管理」,滄海書局,1999。
     王立志,「供應鏈實戰手冊:運用APS跨越MRP鴻溝」,鼎誠資訊,2002。
     蕭聖倫,「APS與ERP系統整合方法之探討」,東海大學工業工程與經營資訊研究所,碩士論文,2002。
     呂金昇,「企業資源規劃與先進規劃排程配合之研究」,世新大學資訊管理研究所,碩士論文,2005。
     盧舜年、鄒坤霖,「供應鏈的第一本書」,鼎誠資訊,2002。
     賴宣名,「全球供應鏈管理」,麗勤管理顧問,2005。
     高德拉特、斯拉根海默、柏德克,「仍然不足夠— ERP加TOC的企業電腦化新境界」,羅嘉穎譯,羅鎮坤審訂,天下遠見出版公司出版,2004。
     黃郁能,「維修零件存貨管理之研究-3C及CPFR之應用」,台灣科技大學管理研究所,碩士論文,2004。

    二、英文文獻
     Jarris, F. W. (1915), “Operations Cost, Factory Series 5.11. Hollier, R.H. and Mak, L. (1983), “Inventory replenishment polices for deteriorating items in a declining market”, International Journal of Production Research, 21, P813-826.
     Silver, E.A., Pyke, D.F. and Peterson, R.(1998), “Inventory management and production planning and scheduling”, John Wiley & Sons, New York, Third Ed., P150.
     Goldratt, Eliyahu M. and Cox, Jeff., “The Goal”, North-River Press,1992.
     Goldratt, Eliyahu M., “It’s Not Luck”, North-River Press,1994.
     Goldratt, Eliyahu M., “Critical Chain”, North-River Press,1997.
     Goldratt, Eliyahu M., “Necessary But Not Sufficient”, North-River Press, 2000.
     Goldratt, Eliyahu M., “Goldratt Satellite Program”, Session four operations, 2000.
     Carol A. Ptak, CFPIM, CIRM, Jonah with Eli Schragenheim, “ERP Tools, Techniques, and Applications for Integrating the Supply Chain”, V1, P.10, 2000, APICS.
     Fernandez-Ranada, Gurrola-Gal and Lopez-Tello.”3C-A Method to reach Total Customer Service”. APICS, 36th, International Conference, October 12, 1993. San Antonio TX, USA. Conference proceedings, pp524-533.
     Fernandez-Ranada, Gurrola-Gal and Lopez-Tello.”3C-Capacity, Commonality and Consumption”PartI. January, 9 1992, AT&T Internal publication, Tres Cantos Spain.
     Fernandez-Ranada, Gurrola-Gal and Lopez-Tello.”3C-Capacity, Commonality and Consumption”PartII. January, 9 1992, AT&T Internal publication, Tres Cantos Spain.
     Fernandez-Ranada, Gurrola-Gal and Lopez-Tello.”JIT Management of a ware house”, Spanish Logistics Association(C.E.L.). October, 1990, Madrid, Spain.

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