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Author: 張以慈
Yi-Tzu Chang
Thesis Title: 於行動隨意網路下防禦黑洞攻擊之多誘餌偵測機制
A Multi-bait Detection Mechanism for Black Hole Attacks in MANET
Advisor: 羅乃維
Nai-Wei Lo
Committee: 楊傳凱
Chuan-Kai Yang
賴源正
Yuan-Cheng Lai
Degree: 碩士
Master
Department: 管理學院 - 資訊管理系
Department of Information Management
Thesis Publication Year: 2020
Graduation Academic Year: 108
Language: 英文
Pages: 68
Keywords (in Chinese): 行動隨意網路動態來源路由協定多誘餌偵測黑洞攻擊
Keywords (in other languages): Mobile Ad Hoc NETwork (MANET), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Multi-Bait Detection Mechanism (MBDM), Black Hole Attack
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行動隨意網路是以行動裝置,通過無線連結,自我建構所形成的網路,屬於無線隨意網路的一種,於1970年代早期由美國國防先進研究計劃署研究發展而生,主要因應軍事通訊用途。在軍事情境中,被動式路由被視為最有效率的路由方式,而又以動態來源路由最為廣泛應用;然而傳統路由協定的安全性一直是受到重視的研究議題,其中又以黑洞攻擊為最普遍的安全破口, 攻擊者藉由丟棄網路上的封包達到阻斷服務攻擊的目的。
本篇論文以行動隨意網路下之被動式路由-動態來源路由為基礎提出具安全機制的協定,以有效防止黑洞攻擊,將其稱之為多誘餌偵測機制;多誘餌偵測機制透過相鄰節點作為誘餌,藉由廣播請求封包以偵測、定位並孤立惡意節點。本篇使用NS-3模擬器做為實驗方式。主要模擬在軍事情境下,步兵在戰場上相互通訊的效果,以封包傳輸率、網路吞吐量以及平均端到端延遲三項因子作為分析評量基準,經由模擬實驗結果證明,多誘餌偵測機制遠優於原先的動態來源路由,尤其當網路中有15%的惡意節點時,多誘餌偵測機制相較於動態來源路由協定的封包傳輸率高出24倍的表現。


In the early 1970s, the idea of the Mobile Ad Hoc NETwork (MANET) was originated from a U.S. military plan. Since then, MANET have been widely used for providing communications to militaries and operations in the conventional battlefield scenarios. An on-demand protocol such as DSR is particularly suitable adopted under the military scenarios. However, common routing protocols lack in defensive procedures, and thus, make MANET vulnerable to security attacks. Black hole attack is one of the major threats to MANET that the intruders can easily implement and breach the security. Consequently, black hole attacks typically lead to severe denial of service attacks.
In this thesis, a DSR-based secure routing protocol is proposed, named Multi-Bait Detection Mechanism (MBDM). The MBDM detects, locates and isolates the black hole nodes by broadcasting bait RREQ to the network. The experiments have been done using Network Simulator 3 (NS-3). Metrics used are packet delivery ratio, throughput and average end-to-end delay. The results show that in the most common military scenario, the infantry regiment circumstances, the MBDM outperforms the DSR 2455.6% in PDR with 15% malicious nodes in the network.

Contents 摘要 I Abstract II Acknowledgment III Contents IV List of Figures VI List of Tables VIII Chapter 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Background 1 1.2 Research Goal 4 Chapter 2 Preliminary 6 2.1 MANET Routing Protocol 6 2.2 Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) 8 2.3 Black Hole Attack in DSR-based MANET 11 Chapter 3 Related Work 14 3.1 Route-discovery-based scheme 15 3.2 Data-transmission-based scheme 17 3.3 Hybrid-based scheme 19 Chapter 4 Proposed Approach 21 4.1 Bait Enticement Phase 24 4.2 Reversed Tracing Phase 27 4.3 Continuous Defense Phase 32 Chapter 5 Experiment and Analysis 33 5.1 Simulation Model 33 5.2 Performance Metrics 34 5.3 Experiment Results and Analysis 35 Chapter 6 Conclusion and Future Work 52 References 53

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