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Author: 朱天來
TIEN-LAI CHU
Thesis Title: 以小搏大的策略運用-以塑膠原料通路商(科亞公司)的減法經營為例
The Strategy of "Adopting Minimum to Gain Maximum"-A Minus-managerial Case Study of CO-ACTION CORP
Advisor: 盧希鵬
Hsi-Peng Lu
羅天一
Tainyi Luor
Committee: 陳正綱
Cheng-Kang Chen
Degree: 碩士
Master
Department: 管理學院 - 管理研究所
Graduate Institute of Management
Thesis Publication Year: 2014
Graduation Academic Year: 102
Language: 中文
Pages: 53
Keywords (in Chinese): 創業者以小博大減法經營
Keywords (in other languages): Beginning entrepreneurs, David and Gallia, Subtraction operations
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  • 大部分哈佛個案討論的都是大型企業的經營與策略,很多決策雖然很具參考價值,但對於初創業者,仍是遙不可及。而本個案所探討的是中小型塑膠原料的通路商如何在大型通路商競爭環伺的生態上,以減法經營來以小搏大做單點突破,並透過合作來達到與大型通路商決戰的實力。本文中闡述中小企業最常碰到經營上的困難,以不同的策略,由個人式經營走到絢爛的紅海再駛向獲利較豐的藍海,建立了自己的特色,始能在業界生存。另外也包含了在經營上常會碰到的問題,諸如資金的籌措、倒帳的防止、庫存的預備、週轉率的提升、市場的變化及危機的處理等都有詳細的闡述,希望提供有志創業的朋友們一個參考。
    文中的主人翁在國立台灣工業技術院(台科大前身)纖維及高分子工程技術系畢業後,在上市公司的工廠歷經了品管、建廠、生產、售後服務、研究開發及董事長室幕僚等各部門的洗禮,最後終能以29歲掌管了三個廠共600餘人的工廠,並在最後轉入工程塑膠通路商,但其在工廠的實質經營,對於後來在行銷上的技術支援上,不但提供客戶完整的資訊,也可以與客戶共同開發,而對於供應商則提供了相當信心,使其在代理期間,客訴幾近於零,而文中所提到用減法經營即是以小搏大,將公司的資源做最大化的應用。
    而「減法經營」的理論是將所有資源集中在熟悉的單項中,仿若專賣店的型態再以降低售價及減少利潤,除原先有的小型工廠訂單之外,也能接觸中型工廠,以獲取更多更大的訂單及數量,再向原廠議價以降低成本。待成本降低後,再進行大型工廠的開發,以獲得更大的訂單。如此反覆操作,以增加競爭力。而人員方面則力求精簡,非核心部分如倉儲、運輸、報關、簡易加工等,以配合代替僱用,如此在不景氣時可以不用裁員,彈性較大。而薪資則採用勤勞獎金制,依工作量給予單位人員配額,當缺工時可以將缺少人數之部分薪資分給該單位員工。如此雖然工作量增加但薪資得以提高,向心力自然就增強。如果不景氣,因為用的人少,因此也不須裁員。而掌握指標客戶,可以了解市場脈動;而小量客戶則轉給經銷商,使客戶減少易於操作。而庫存部分,與客戶建立預購制度,進口後即直接轉給客戶,可減少倉租及運費、降低庫存、減少呆滯料,將此減少的成本反映給客戶,客戶也因此可降低成本,看起來利潤較低,但週轉率因而提升,總獲利反而提高。如果客戶因此而增加所須的週轉金,則轉介銀行貸款,因銀行可以給的還款天數可達180天,反而減輕客戶的負擔,形成三贏。
    由於專業的認知,主人翁對於經銷商品的上下游行情也很清楚,能夠預先掌握商品市場的脈動,對於庫存的調整及使客戶能在漲價時預先進貨,跌價時延緩進貨,都是客情維繫的重要因素。財務方面則採取資金自償,每筆貨款在銀行貸款到期前回收,不做過度操作,以長支長以短支短,以避免挖東牆補西牆。匯率方面則採取自然避險,即買貨時用美金,賣貨即收美金;買貨時用台幣賣貨即收台幣。如果買貨時是用美金賣貨時收台幣,則在到貨後在銀行改貸台幣,如此成本就會固定、資金可以自償,也不會有太大的幣值風險,畢竟操作匯率不是我們的專長,總之以最簡單自然的操作來完成所有的交易,才能在無憂無懼的工作環境裡快樂的行銷。


    Most of the cases discussed in Harvard are large corporate business and strategy, although a lot of decision-making has reference value, but for beginning entrepreneurs, is still out of reach. This case we discussed is a small and medium sized plastic material distributor how to break through by subtraction operation in the competitive market which is full of many large distributors, and even cooperate with other small and medium companies to achieve the strength for the decisive battle with large distributors. This article describes the most commonly operational difficulties which SMEs will face, and describes that using different strategies, from personal-run to the Red Ocean Strategy and then next step to the more profitable Blue Ocean Strategy. Only establish one company’s own characteristics, so that it can survive in this industry. This article also describes the problems in detail that will be usually happened when running a business, such as fundraising, bad debt prevention, Inventory preparation, turnover enhancing, changes in the market and crisis management. Hope can provide the friends would like to start a business for reference.
    The main character in the article was graduated from fiber and polymer engineering technology department of National Taiwan Industrial Technology Institute (NTUST predecessor). In listed company he has experienced various departments, factory quality control, construction, manufacturing, after-sales service, research and development and advisor of chairman’s office. At the age of 29, he took in charge of the factory which has three plants (total 600 people). Finally, he transferred to be an engineering plastics distributor. The previous practical experience of factory management and operation is helpful for the following business. In marketing technical support, with previous experiences, he can offer customers complete information and also develop product with customers. Besides, he can provide suppliers much confidence, customer complaints is almost 0 when being an agent. This article mentioned the business model of “subtraction operation” is to use the minimal resources to do the maximum application in a company.
    The theory of " subtraction operations" is to concentrate all resources in one familiar product item, the patterns are like the specialty store and to lower the price and profits, so that besides the original orders from small factory, we also can contact medium-sized factories and get more and bigger orders and quantity, then we can bargain with supplier to reduce the cost. After the cost was lowered, next step is to develop large factories to get more orders. Repeat this kind of operation again and again to increase competitiveness. In addition, employee is downsizing, non-core part, such as warehousing, transportation, customs clearance , simple processing, instead of hiring employees, but find others companies to cooperate, so that we do not need to lay off employees when the economy is in a slump, it is flexibility . The salary is using the system of hard-working bonus system. The bonus is according to the workload of each unit employee. When employee is not enough, the workload will be increased, unit employees also have more bonuses. It can enhance the employees’ engagement. Employee is downsizing, so we do not need to lay off our employees when the economic is in a slump. Transfer small order customers to dealers, although the numbers of customer was reduced, but we can concentrate on servicing major customers and it is easy for operation. By establish the pre-order system with customers to purchasing. After the goods importing, these goods are delivered to customers directly, it can reduce warehouse rent and transportation charge, reduce inventory, and cost savings will be feedback to customers. The profits seem to be less, but turnover rate is increased, so the total profit was improved.
    Financial Strategy we take is self-liquidating, each payment recovered prior to maturity of bank loans, there will not have excessive operation so that we can avoid the situation of Rob Peter to pay Paul. Currency Exchange rage strategy we take is natural hedge, that is, when purchasing goods by USD then receiving customers’ payment by USD, when purchasing by NTD and then receiving NTD. If we pay USD when purchasing (through bank), and receive the payment from customer by NTD. When goods arrive, we will change the loan from USD to NTD, so that the cost will be fixed, funds can be self-liquidating, there will not be much risk of currency, after all, operate rate is not our expertise.

    摘要 ABSTRACT 誌謝 目錄 圖目錄 表目錄 第一章、 緒論 1.1研究目的 第二章、 文獻探討 2.1行銷通路與材料中間商 2.2中間商的角色與價值分析 2.3中間商的功能 2.4製造商配銷策略 2.5工業材料中間商 2.5.1中間商的定義 2.5.2中間商種類Hutt and Speh(1989) 2.6工業性產品市場 2.7代理理論 2.8交易成本理論 2.9彼得原理 2.10彼得現象的危害 2.11彼得原理的因應對策 第三章、 產業與通路特性 3.1石化工業 3.2塑膠簡介 3.2.1泛用塑膠 3.2.2工程塑膠 3.2.3高性能工程塑膠 3.3聚碳酸酯(Polycarbonate) 3.3.1PC製程技術 3.3.2PC加工和用途 3.4抗菌劑 3.4.1抗菌製品概念 3.4.2石塚硝子抗菌劑 3.4.3無機抗菌劑的抗菌機制 3.5擴散劑 3.6塑膠的染色與抽粒 3.7射出成形原理與流程 第四章、 個案本文 4.1十年磨一劍 4.2公司的創立 4.3產業的西移 4.4池魚危機 4.5上帝的祝福 4.6絢爛的紅海 4.7駛向蔚藍海 4.8聯合新艦隊 第五章、 個案討論 5.1減法經營 5.2餛飩理論 5.3氣旋理論 5.4養貓女人 5.5螞蟻雄兵 5.6草船借箭 5.7合縱連橫 5.8暗度陳倉 5.9精兵政策 5.10快樂行銷 第六章、 結論 參考文獻

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