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Author: 林向輝
Liem Peter Santoso
Thesis Title: 適用於IoT環境的安全且可信的韌體更新框架
Secure and Trusted Firmware Update Framework for IoT Environment
Advisor: 羅乃維
Nai-Wei Lo
Committee: 查士朝
Shih-Chao Cha
賴源正
Yuan-Chang Lai
Degree: 碩士
Master
Department: 管理學院 - 資訊管理系
Department of Information Management
Thesis Publication Year: 2019
Graduation Academic Year: 107
Language: 英文
Pages: 76
Keywords (in Chinese): 韌體更新點對點驗證
Keywords (in other languages): Skipchain, Peer-to-peer verification
Reference times: Clicks: 268Downloads: 9
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  • 物聯網設備在過去幾年的快速增長帶來了便利
    在人的生命中。 大量安裝的物聯網設備使該設備成為可能
    製造商(供應商)難以維護物聯網設備。 單程
    維護IoT設備是通過固件更新。 供應商可以
    添加新功能,增強安全性並重新配置IoT設備
    通過固件更新。 但是,固件更新過程
    並非沒有風險。 有幾個著名的攻擊目標
    固件更新過程。 在本論文中,我們提出了一種強大而輕便的方法
    使用跳過鏈技術確保固件更新安全性的框架。
    利用跳過鏈的前向鏈接,提議的協議可以
    有效地進行對等固件更新驗證。 基於原型
    關於擬議框架的構建和評估。 而且,我們的
    提議的框架也被證明是安全的,可以承受一些
    眾所周知的攻擊。


    The rapid growth of IoT devices in past few years brings convenience
    in human life. The huge amount of installed IOT devices makes the device
    manufacturer (vendor) difficult to maintain the IoT devices. One way
    to maintain the IoT device is through the firmware update. Vendor can
    add new functionality, enhance the security and re-configure the IoT device
    through a firmware update. However, the firmware update process
    is not without risk. There are several well-known attacks those targets the
    firmware update process. In this thesis, we propose a robust and lightweight
    framework that ensure the firmware update security using skipchain technology.
    Utilizing the skipchain’s forward link, the proposed protocol can
    do peer-to-peer firmware update verification efficiently. A prototype based
    on the proposed framework is constructed and evaluated. Moreover, our
    proposed framework is also proven to be secure and could withstand some
    well-known attacks.

    Contents Recommendation Letter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i Approval Letter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v List of Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii List of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x List of Pseudocodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 Literature Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.1 Cyber Attack on Firmware and Remote Firmware Update for Embedded Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.2 Blockchain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.3 Skiplist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.4 Skipchain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.5 Blockchain-based Firmware Update Framework . . . . . . 15 3 System Environment and Protocol Designs . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3.1 Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 v 3.2 Skipchain Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 3.3 Architecture Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 3.4 Protocol Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 3.4.1 Firmware Update Verification Protocol . . . . . . 31 3.4.2 Firmware Update Peer-to-Peer Verification Protocol 33 3.4.3 Firmware Update Execution Protocol . . . . . . . 36 4 Prototype Design and Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 4.1 Prototype Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 4.1.1 Key Exchange Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 4.1.2 AES Encryption Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 4.1.3 AES Decryption Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 4.2 Prototype Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 5 Security and Performance Analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 5.1 Security Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 5.2 Protocol Verification Using Scyther Tool . . . . . . . . . . 53 5.2.1 Data Secrecy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 5.2.2 Aliveness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 5.2.3 Non-injective Agreement and Non-injective Synchronisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 5.3 Performance Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 vi 5.4 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 6 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

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