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Author: 陳炫羽
Hsuan-yu Chen
Thesis Title: 具秘鑰冗餘機制的RFID身分鑑別協定於不同步攻擊下之安全分析
Security Analysis for RFID Authentication Protocols with Key Redundancy Mechanism on De-synchronization Attack
Advisor: 羅乃維
Nai-Wei Lo
Committee: 吳宗成
Tzong-Chen Wu
葉國暉
Kuo-Hui Yeh
Degree: 碩士
Master
Department: 管理學院 - 資訊管理系
Department of Information Management
Thesis Publication Year: 2012
Graduation Academic Year: 100
Language: 英文
Pages: 59
Keywords (in Chinese): 無線射頻識別安全性隱私性身分鑑別秘鑰冗餘
Keywords (in other languages): RFID, Security, Privacy, Authentication, Secret Redundancy
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無線射頻識別 (Radio Frequency Identification, RFID) 為一種非接觸式、短距離的自動化識別技術,可藉由無線射頻來辨識嵌於物品上之標籤內容資料,此技術已廣泛地運用於存貨管理與追蹤、身分鑑別、自動付費、供應鏈管理等多項領域。近年來由於社會對於個人隱私議題的重視,因此在眾多有使用身分鑑別技術的應用中,凡嵌有標籤之物件,都需要能夠支援其前/後向安全性之協定,以抵擋攻擊者任意追蹤及攻擊,基於以上緣由,考量採用低成本且具安全性之RFID極輕量級身分鑑別協定是一項值得探討的研究議題。
為抵擋惡意攻擊活動所造成的隱私問題,RFID極輕量級身分鑑別協定大多在標籤端與讀取器/伺服器端採用動態更新秘鑰機制,以確保其通訊前/後向安全性。然而,在現實環境中,攻擊者依舊可以輕易地干擾或阻斷每個身分鑑別期間所傳遞的訊息,使得在標籤端與讀取器/伺服器端所存有的秘鑰不一致,導致兩端呈現秘鑰非同步狀態,此類的攻擊即稱為「不同步攻擊(De-synchronization Attack)」。為了進一步抵抗不同步攻擊,最近發展之協定開始採用秘鑰冗餘的設計概念,以允許當標籤與資料庫兩端呈現不同步狀態時,兩端仍舊可透過秘鑰冗餘設計於下一個身分鑑別期間正常且成功地相互溝通。
在此篇論文當中,我們分析並證明許多現存同時使用秘鑰冗餘機制於標籤端與伺服器端的RFID極輕量級身分鑑別協定,對於避免遭受不同步攻擊並無顯著地幫助,且無法有效地抵擋攻擊者所發動的非同步攻擊。同時我們也提出一強健的補救機制,能有效確保RFID極輕量級身分鑑別協定之安全性,以抵擋不同步攻擊,並做為日後RFID極輕量級身分鑑別協定設計之基礎。


Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a contactless and short distance automatic identification technology which can identify the information of RFID tags attached on objects by radio frequency signal and send information to the system side to authenticate and track. In nowadays, RFID technology is being used for many applications in our life. For example, asset management, tracking, authenticity verification and soon.
In real environment, there are many attackers on the RFID system. With the personal privacy, the demand for RFID authentication protocol which can protect the forward and backward security is more rising in recent years. To resist the attack, the RFID ultra-lightweight authentication protocol has become more important.
To deliver robust privacy-aware RFID ultra-lightweight authentication protocol against malicious tracing activities, automatically secret updating mechanism is exploited at both tag end and server end during each authentication session to support forward/backward security. Nevertheless, an adversary may easily interrupt transmission of necessary key update message in each authentication session such that key re-synchronization between tag and server cannot be completed, which is named as de-synchronization attack. For this reason, current RFID ultra-lightweight authentication protocols have applied key redundancy design to allow a tag with de-synchronized secret to successfully communicate with server in its next authentication session. In this paper, we identify most of existing RFID ultra-lightweight authentication protocols with key redundancy mechanism both at tag side and server side cannot defend against de-synchronization attack. All of those protocols are totally insecure because the key redundancy mechanisms are not well-designed.We also propose a remedy mechanism which is robust enough to resist de-synchronization attack for KRP model protocols.

中文摘要 Abstract 誌謝 Contents List of Figures Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 2 Related Work Chapter 3 Security Analysis on De-synchronization Attack 3.1 Notations and Model Definitions 3.1.1 Notations Definitions 3.1.2 Attack Oracle Query 3.1.3 Definition: Service Availability 3.2 Key Redundancy-based Protocol Model (KRP Model) 3.3 Generic De-Synchronization Attack Process 3.4 Analysis on De-synchronization Attack for Protocols in KRP Model 3.5 Security Analysis on Existing Protocols Categorized in KRP Model 3.5.1 Analysis on SULMA Protocol [2] 3.5.2 Analysis on KGY Protocol [3] 3.5.3 Analysis on LHYC Protocol [4] Chapter 4 Remedy Mechanism for KRP Protocols Chapter 5 Conclusion References

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