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Author: 楊大治
Ta-Chih Yang
Thesis Title: 基於區塊鏈之電子病歷系統安全框架設計
On the Design of Secure Blockchain-based Framework for Electronic Medical Record System
Advisor: 羅乃維
Nai-Wei Lo
Committee: 楊傳凱
Chuan-Kai Yang
賴源正
Yuan-Cheng Lai
左瑞麟
Ray-Lin Tso
葉國暉
Kuo-Hui Yeh
羅乃維
Nai-Wei Lo
Degree: 博士
Doctor
Department: 管理學院 - 資訊管理系
Department of Information Management
Thesis Publication Year: 2020
Graduation Academic Year: 108
Language: 中文
Pages: 129
Keywords (in Chinese): 電子病歷鏈智能合約具隱私保護之屬性授權技術多因子身分鑑別技術
Keywords (in other languages): Electronic Medical Record Chain, Smart Contract, Attribute Authorization with Privacy Protection, Multi-Factor Authentication
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  • 隨著個人資料保護意識的抬頭,電子病歷等特種個人資料的保護議題也隨之熱絡,電子病歷系統是大量儲存特種個人資料的資訊系統,因此如何保護病歷的機密性、完整性、病患個人隱私及避免醫療糾紛的不可否認性即成為此領域研究的重點。而電子病歷的載體也隨著科技及網路的進步,從單機伺服器、雲端運算到目前熱門的區塊鏈技術。區塊鏈應用除廣為人知的比特幣外,在系統設計上可利用其分散式電子帳本的概念,輔以鏈外檔案儲存功能及確保檔案之完整性,再結合智能合約的設計及儲存於鏈上的中介資料,即可完整建構一去中心化的資料儲存鏈。
    在本論文中,我們提出一個應用於區塊鏈之電子病歷系統安全框架,以達成在無中央發卡機構及中央電子病歷交換中心的狀態下,讓加入本框架之醫療機構皆可發行智慧卡,且可利用該卡在非發卡之醫事機構進行身分鑑別並且可順利的進行電子病歷交換。該框架包含以區塊鏈為主的電子病歷鏈架構、鏈下儲存機制、運行於電子病歷鏈上的智能合約、多因子身分鑑別技術及屬性授權機制。利用區塊鏈非實名特性存放中介資料,輔以鏈下儲存機制,可在電子病歷鏈中保護病患隱私;透過智能合約的設計,結合不同醫事機構間資訊的傳遞並可隨時增減加入電子病歷鏈的醫事機構數量;透過多因子身分鑑別機制可確保醫事人員及病患的合法身分;最後利用結合角色的屬性授權技術,將電子病歷鏈分為粗粒度授權及細粒度授權兩階段,讓不同身分的醫事人員讀取不同的電子病歷模組,並增加隱私記號,讓病患自由選擇此份病歷是否可與無相關之專科醫師分享,進一步保護病患的隱私。最後透過急診醫師部分的授權設計,讓失去意識的病患也可透過授權處理讓醫師能及時獲取無意識病患的過往病歷資料,理解病患過往病史,以即時的處理病患。
    本安全框架,也經過適當的安全分析,可抵禦常見的威脅,包含:竊聽攻擊、字典及窮舉攻擊、偽造攻擊、重送攻擊、中間人攻擊及離線密碼猜測攻擊等。預期本框架可在無中央控管機構之狀態下,對醫事機構及病患提供更有彈性地的服務,並同時保障病患的隱私及各醫事機構的資料安全控管。


    With the conscious awakening of personal information protection, how to protect individuals’ electronic medical records has become a critical issue all over the world. Electronic Medical Record System (EMRS) stores sensitive personal information and medical records of each corresponding individual. Therefore, how to support confidentiality and integrity of medical records stored in an ERMS, protect individual privacy and provide the undeniability in medical disputes have become a very important and interesting research topic. As system architecture of EMRS evolves from Client-Server, Cloud to Blockchain, new generation of EMRS utilizes smart contract, one of blockchain technologies, to construct a decentralized ledger system to store medical transaction metadata and introduces off-chain file storage with data integrity functionality on personal medical files.
    In this dissertation, we propose a secure framework for EMRS with blockchain technologies such that all medical institutions, which have joined the proposed EMRS framework, allow a patient to acquire its own EMRs in different medical institutions by using a smart-card-based patient identity card issued by one of the medical institutions. This framework adopts blockchain technology to form EMR chain to record all medical transaction metadata, support off-chain EMR storage mechanism, utilizes smart contracts to perform various operations on the EMR chain and EMRs, provides multi-factor authentication mechanism to identify patients and hospital workers, and offers fine-granularity attribute-based access control scheme for different roles and individuals among medical institutions.
    Security analysis was conducted for the proposed secure framework to prove the proposed framework is secure. Major security threats were considered in this analysis: eavesdropping attack, dictionary and exhaustive attack, forgery attack, replay attack, man in the middle attack and offline guessing attack. The proposed framework provides robust data security to medical institutions and patients with a distributed framework architecture and supports the privacy of patients at the same time.

    中文摘要 I ABSTRACT III 誌謝….. VI 圖目錄.. VIII 表目錄.. IX 第一章 緒論 1 1.1 研究背景與動機 1 1.2 研究目的 4 1.3 論文架構 6 第二章 相關理論及技術 8 2.1 公開金鑰密碼系統 8 2.2 團體式密碼系統 11 2.3 區塊鏈 15 2.4 智能合約 21 2.5 以角色為基礎之存取控制 23 2.6 以屬性為基礎之授權控制 32 第三章 文獻探討 36 3.1 電子病歷系統安全機制相關研究 36 3.2 電子病歷區塊鏈相關之研究 42 第四章 電子病歷鏈之隱私保護暨安全框架設計 47 4.1 電子病歷鏈之安全框架介紹 47 4.2 安全分析 84 4.3 小結 95 第五章 結論 101 參考文獻 104 著作清單 116

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