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Author: 黎金河
Chin-Ho Li
Thesis Title: 台灣設計代工產業升級關鍵因素之研究- 以筆記型電腦產品代工公司為例
Key success factors of upgrading the design and foundry industry in Taiwan – the case of notebook computer product manufacturing industry
Advisor: 欒斌
Pin Luarn
Committee: 陳正剛
Cheng-Kang Chen
林鴻文
Hong-Wen-Lin
Degree: 碩士
Master
Department: 管理學院 - 管理研究所
Graduate Institute of Management
Thesis Publication Year: 2020
Graduation Academic Year: 108
Language: 中文
Pages: 74
Keywords (in Chinese): 關鍵因素筆記型電腦產業代工廠多角化產業升級
Keywords (in other languages): Key factors, Laptop OEM/ODM manufacturing industry, OEM/ODM manufacturing companies, Diversification, Industrial Upgrade
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  • 2020 年初開始,新冠肺炎在全球大爆發,全世界主要的城市陸續封城。企業要求員工在家上班,學校要求學生在家遠距教學。全球的秩序大亂,但是平板、筆記型電腦、遊戲機等電子產品需求卻是暴增,市場缺貨哀鴻遍野。代工電子廠商無不想盡各種辦法復工、生產,來滿足這一波突如其來的需求與業績,迎接代工慘業久違的榮景。
    台灣筆記型電腦代工產業經歷三十多年來的征戰,整個產業從最早期90 年代2、30%的高毛利率,直到2000 年網路泡沫化之後淪為紅海殺價市場。代工大廠營收規模大,但毛利率卻已滑落到僅3-4%,長期以來遭到投資市場稱為毛三到四的窘境。然而面對低毛利、高競爭與集中化的代工業務,台灣廠商紛紛開始透過高值化、新事業、跨領域以及結合現有的產業優勢地位下,積極努力提升毛利率與營收。台灣一直以來所累積的設計、製造優勢和代工邏輯卻也限制了企業轉型與永續經營策略的選擇。本研究探討與深入了解目前代工產業的個案公司成功延續過往代工本業的關鍵因素。透過與個案廠商專家的實際訪談分析結果,除了集團供應商的垂直整合、組織效率的改造與人員的技術精進之外,有效的發展多角化策略及跨產業的投資來降低代工本業的獲利起伏亦是關鍵重點。這些轉折決策都是讓台灣引以為傲的高生產力與競爭力能得以延續的成功原因。


    Starting from early 2020, the global outbreak of COVID-19 forced major cities all over the world taking lockdown measures. Companies have implemented work from home policy while schools have pivoted to distance learning. Under such chaotic circumstances, there has been an overwhelming increase in the need for electronic products such as tablets, laptops, and game consoles globally. However, without enough inventories and
    manufacturing capacity, the surge in demand couldn’t be responded. Electronic OEM
    manufacturers have strived for production and manufacturing recovery in every possible way in order to boost sales performance and to retrieve the prosperity of OEM industry.
    Taiwan’s laptop OEM/ODM manufacturers have witnessed the rise and fall of the industry for more than 30 years. In the early stage of the industry in 90s’, the gross margin achieved over 20% to 30%. When the time went to dot-com bubble in 2002, the industry has been dragged into a red ocean market with only 3-4% low margin situation. In order to sustain competitiveness under the circumstances of low margin, high competition and centralization of OEM/ODM business, Taiwan’s OEM/ODM manufacturers, based on their existed long-standing advantages in the industry, have turned to focus on business values creation, and new business and multi-disciplinary business development in order to increase gross margin and revenues. However, the long-term accumulated design, production advantages and business logics of Taiwan’s OEM/ODM manufacturers have constrained the mindsets of those companies when it comes to operation transformation and sustainability strategies.
    This research aims at giving deeper insights of current OEM/ODM industry and key factors that sustain the competitiveness of those OEM/ODM manufacturers. Through interviews with experts of those manufacturing companies, the vertical integration, efficiency of an organization, personnel’s skill enhancement, diversified business development and crossindustry investment are key levers to reduce costs and to increase margins. All the abovementioned approaches have been making significant contributions to the sustainability of Taiwan’s strong productivity and competitiveness.

    中文摘要.............................................................................................................................. I ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................................ II 致謝................................................................................................................................... III 圖目錄................................................................................................................................ V 表目錄............................................................................................................................... VI 第壹章 緒論................................................................................................................. 1 第一節 研究背景與動機............................................................................................. 1 第二節 研究目的......................................................................................................... 2 第三節 研究流程與架構............................................................................................. 3 第貳章 文獻探討......................................................................................................... 4 第一節 全球筆記型電腦產業市場發展..................................................................... 4 第二節 全球主要筆記型電腦品牌廠商產業概況..................................................... 6 第三節 台灣筆記型電腦代工產業現況..................................................................... 9 第四節 代工產業轉型困境....................................................................................... 14 第五節 轉型升級品牌............................................................................................... 15 第六節 成功關鍵因素............................................................................................... 16 第參章 個案公司歷史沿革與現況........................................................................... 22 第一節 仁寶電腦....................................................................................................... 22 第二節 廣達電腦....................................................................................................... 28 第三節 緯創資通....................................................................................................... 31 第四節 英業達........................................................................................................... 36 第肆章 研究設計....................................................................................................... 41 第一節 研究方法....................................................................................................... 41 第二節 研究對象....................................................................................................... 42 第三節 訪談大綱....................................................................................................... 44 第伍章 訪談結果分析與探討................................................................................... 46 第一節 產業個案公司訪談結果............................................................................... 46 第二節 產業個案關鍵因素分析............................................................................... 48 第陸章 研究結論與建議........................................................................................... 51 第一節 研究結論....................................................................................................... 51 第二節 管理意涵....................................................................................................... 52 第三節 研究限制....................................................................................................... 54 參考文獻........................................................................................................................... 55 訪談附錄........................................................................................................................... 57

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