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Author: 丁奕豪
Yi-Hao - Ting
Thesis Title: 空拍機應用於道路交通事故處理
RTADS: A System for Effective and Efficient Sketching Road Traffic Accidents Diagram Using Drone
Advisor: 戴文凱
Wen-Kai Tai
Committee: 朱宏國
Hung-Kuo Chu
賴祐吉
Yu-Chi Lai
姚智原
Chih-Yuan Yao
Degree: 碩士
Master
Department: 電資學院 - 資訊工程系
Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering
Thesis Publication Year: 2017
Graduation Academic Year: 105
Language: 中文
Pages: 114
Keywords (in Chinese): 道路交通事故處理系統道路交通事故現場圖空拍作業SOP無人機
Keywords (in other languages): RTADS, Aerial shooting SOP, UAV(Unmanned Aerial Vehicle), Drone, Accident reconstruction graphic, Traffic accident investigation
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  • 交通事故頻繁!警察單位在道路交通事故處理的過程中,最重要的工作在記錄現場,包含現場攝影、現場繪圖、跡證採集等。因此,如何提升事故現場處理的品質與效率相當重要!
    隨著無人機的普及化與技術成熟,本論文利用無人機的採證便利性與機動性應用於道路交通事故處理上。我們提出一套完整的道路交通事故處理系統:包含行動裝置端、服務端與客戶端。行動裝置端包含「操控空拍機與拍照之軟體系統」和「繪製現場圖之軟體系統」,服務端有伺服器儲存事故現場資料與後製軟體和客戶端包含編輯、後製軟體與列印裝置。並且提出一套空拍作業SOP,以有效地處理道路交通事故。空拍作業SOP包含:準備、跟隨、俯拍、環拍、繞拍、點拍、返航、繪圖與資料回傳伺服器。。透過無人機的跟隨,能協助警員勘查現場;無人機得到的俯拍圖作為事故現場圖的基底,我們自動化測量物件間的距離,並完整的標示事故現場的資訊,解決傳統繪圖不清晰、不精準的問題;透過環拍、繞拍、點拍可做完整的事故現場攝影與跡證採集。最後能將資料回傳伺服器做資料保全與後製。
    實驗包含了自動測光驗證、跟隨ROI驗證、點拍精準度、自動返航精準度、事故現場圖測距精準度,結果驗證了空拍作業SOP的可行性與資料完整性。且提出的空拍繪製現場圖相較於傳統繪圖方法節省了66%的作業時間和降低測距誤差至5.43公分。
    本論文所提的空拍作業SOP能符合現今的「交通事故現場處理規範」與提升資料品質與警員處理的效率。達到此研究的三個目的:「完整的採集事故現場資料」、「準確的繪製事故現場」與「有效的縮短事故現場處理時間」。


    Traffic accidents happen frequently!In the process of dealing with traffic accidents, the most important work of the police department is examining and recording the scene, which includes photography, drafting, track collection, etc. Therefore, finding a way to enhance the quality and efficiency of the traffic accident investigation is quite important.
    With the rising popularity and technological advances in UAVs (Unmanned Air Vehicles), this study applies the flexibility and convenience of UAVs to handle traffic accident scene investigation. We propose a complete traffic accident management system, which includes a mobile device side, server, and client. The mobile device side includes: a system that can control and taking pictures with the UAV, and a drawing system that lets the user draw and input details of the actual traffic scene image. The server-side includes: a server which stores information of the traffic accident and photo editing. The client-side provides editing, photo editing, and a printer. Thus these three combined together provide a complete aerial photo shooting SOP (Standard Operating Procedure), as to effectively manage and handle traffic scene investigation. The SOP of the aerial shooting system is in the following order: prepare, follow user, overhead shooting, panorama shooting, orbit shooting, anchor shooting, returning home, drawing the accident scene, and backing up information to the server. With UAVs following the police officers, UAVs may assist them in investigating the scene. The overhead view from UAV will be used as the main base of the traffic accident scene. We automatically measure the distance between objects, and indicate the site information completely to solve the unclear and inaccurate problems of traditional drawing. Panorama shooting, orbit shooting, and anchor shooting are to provide a way of photographing the complete accident scene and collecting evidence. Finally, the information retrieved from the preceding steps is sent to the server for date preservation and further editing.
    The experiment includes auto exposure checking, following ROI checking, anchor shooting precision, UAV home returning precision, and the precision of using the overhead traffic accident image to record the real-time distance. The results show and examine the feasibility and information integrity of the Aerial shooting SOP. The use of the UAV overhead shooting within our SOP reduces 66% of the operation time and decreases the error in distance measurement up to 5.43 centimeters, when compared to traditional drawing of traffic accident scenes currently applied today. The SOP this study showcases both follows the “Traffic Accident Scene Handling Regulations” and increases the quality and efficiency of police officers handling traffic accident scenes. The three objectives of this study have been obtained: “Integrity in collecting traffic accident scene information”, “Accurate drawing of the traffic accident scene”, and “Efficiently decreasing the time of handling traffic accident scenes”.

    摘要 I Abstract II 致謝 IV 目錄 V 圖索引 VIII 表索引 XIII 圖表索引 XIV 第一章 緒論 1 1.1 研究動機 1 1.2 研究目的 2 1.3 預計研究貢獻 3 1.4 本論文之章節結構 3 第二章 相關研究 4 2.1 無人機相關應用 4 2.1.1 綠野仙蹤研究(A Wizard of Oz Style Study) 4 2.1.2 人機互動(Human Drone Interactive, HDI) 5 2.1.3 無人機無線網路架構(Wireless Drone Network) 6 2.1.4 植物生態學應用 6 2.1.5 水質分析應用 7 2.1.6 道路交通事故應用 8 2.2 道路交通事故重建之繪圖工具 10 2.3 現今交通事故處理法規與流程 14 第三章 系統架構 17 3.1 系統架構 17 3.2 系統應用情境 17 3.3 UML模型 18 3.4 空拍作業SOP 20 第四章 方法 22 4.1 操控空拍機與拍照之軟體系統 22 4.1.1 功能架構 22 4.1.2 功能介紹 23 4.1 繪製現場圖之軟體系統 42 4.2.1 功能架構 42 4.2.2 繪圖軟體介紹 54 4.2.3 操作流程 58 第五章 系統與實驗結果 64 5.1 開發環境 64 5.2 硬體設備 64 5.2.1 Drone設備 64 5.2.2 RC端平板電腦設備 66 5.2.3 遠端手機設備 67 5.3 實驗結果 68 5.3.1 自動測光驗證 68 5.3.2 跟隨ROI驗證 69 5.3.3 點拍精準度 71 5.3.4 自動返航精準度 74 5.3.5 資料回傳伺服器時間統計 75 5.3.6 現場圖測距精準度 75 5.3.7 空拍繪製現場圖與傳統繪圖比較 78 5.3.8 驗證空拍作業SOP 80 5.3.9 統計空拍作業SOP時間 90 第六章 結論與未來的研究方向 91 6.1 結論 91 6.2 未來研究方向 91 參考文獻 93

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