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Author: 王勝盈
Sheng-ying Wang
Thesis Title: IEEE 802.16 OFDMA 網狀網路集中式排程之效能評估
Performance Evaluation of Centralized Scheduling for IEEE 802.16 OFDMA Mesh Network
Advisor: 黎碧煌
Bih-Hwang Lee
Committee: 鍾添曜
Tein-Yaw Chung
陳添智
Tien-Chi Chen
吳傳嘉
Chwan-Chia Wu
賴源正
Yuan-Cheng Lai
Degree: 碩士
Master
Department: 電資學院 - 電機工程系
Department of Electrical Engineering
Thesis Publication Year: 2008
Graduation Academic Year: 96
Language: 中文
Pages: 59
Keywords (in Chinese): IEEE 802.16OFDMA網狀網路集中式排程允入控制
Keywords (in other languages): IEEE 802.16, OFDMA, Mesh network, Centralized Scheduling, Call Admission Control
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隨著科技的進步與發展,無線網路頻寬的需求也跟著日與俱增,IEEE 802.16也就是俗稱的WiMAX(worldwide interoperability for microware access),它提供了一種新興的無線網路通信技術,主要應用於都會型網路,提供最後一哩(last mile)無線頻寬接入,做為纜線與DSL之外的另一項選擇。
本論文中主要探討實體層技術為正交多頻分工存取(orthogonal frequency division multi access;OFDMA)之網狀網路集中式排程,而由於網狀(mesh)架構並不像點對多點(point to multi-point;PMP)架構對於頻寬配置擁有實際的時槽配置資訊,因此每個用戶台(subscriber station;SS)必須透過一套共同的演算法來推算出自己傳輸資料的時間,故本論文選用四種鏈結選擇策略將其套入OFDMA二維配置演算法做一效能評估與比較。
由於IEEE 802.16網狀架構是一種多點跳躍(multi hop)的無線網路,故本研究加入允入控制機制(call admission control;CAC),減少系統因為網路負載的提高造成大量封包壅塞於中繼用戶台的情形發生,並確保每個連線的資料都能順利傳送到目的端。
在本論文所評估的四種鏈結選擇策略:Nearest_to_BS_first、Farthest_to_BS_first、Lowest_load_first、Highest_load_first之中,從模擬結果可發現由於需求頻寬較大的鏈結在頻寬配置上是較不具彈性化,因此Nearest_to_BS_first 與Highest_load_first所呈現的傳輸效能較其他兩者佳。


With the advancement and development of technology, the bandwidth demand for wireless network is increasing greatly. IEEE 802.16 is commonly known as WiMAX (worldwide interoperability for microware access), which provides a new wireless communication method other than Cable or DSL to solve last-mile access issue in metropolitan area network (MAN).
Since IEEE 802.16 mesh network is one kind of multi-hop wireless networks, a call admission control (CAC) mechanism is used to minimize the situation that a large number of packets are jammed in the relay station while loading increases and to ensure packet delivery successfully.
This paper focuses on the centralized scheduling method for OFDMA(orthogonal frequency division multi access) mesh network. A base station (BS) does not broadcast MAP messages in mesh mode so each subscriber station (SS) must share a common algorithm to compute its own transmission time. Four different kinds of link selection schemes are compared in this paper using OFDMA two-dimensional frame structure.
In the four kinds of link selection schemes, Nearest_to_BS_first, Farthest_to_BS_first, Lowest_load_first, and Highest_load_first, we can find that the time-slot allocation of the highest load links is less flexible from the simulation results, and therefore the throughputs of Nearest_to_BS_first and Highest_load_first are better than the others.

中文摘要 iv 英文摘要 v 誌謝 vi 圖目次 x 表目次 xiii 第一章 緒論 1 1.1網狀網路概述 1 1.2研究動機與目的 2 1.3各章節內容摘要 3 第二章 IEEE 802.16 相關背景介紹 4 2.1 IEEE 802.16無線網路 4 2.1.1 IEEE 802.16簡介 4 2.1.2 IEEE 802.16演進 5 2.1.3 IEEE 802.16 QoS 7 2.1.4網狀網路介紹 8 2.1.5網狀網路訊框架構 9 2.2 集中式排程機制 12 2.2.1集中式排程介紹 12 2.2.2集中式排程週期定義 16 2.3 OFDMA的簡介及優點 18 第三章 系統架構 20 3.1基本網路架構 20 3.2排程樹的建立 21 3.3鏈結干擾介紹 23 3.4排程演算法 26 3.4.1鏈結選擇策略 26 3.4.2鏈結選擇策略對傳輸延遲的影響 30 3.4.3允入控制(call admission control;CAC) 31 3.4.4 OFDMA二維配置方法 32 3.4.5集中式排程架構 38 第四章 系統模擬與結果 41 4.1效能量測 41 4.1.1連線拒絕率(connection blocking ratio) 41 4.1.2系統傳輸效能(system throughput) 41 4.1.3平均存取延遲(average access delay) 42 4.2 系統參數 42 4.2.1模擬環境參數 42 4.2.2流量模型 44 4.3 模擬環境及結果 44 4.3.1四種鏈結選擇策略比較 44 4.3.2網路節點數對效能的影響 49 第五章 結論 55 參考文獻 56 圖目次 圖2-1 網狀網路訊框架構 10 圖2-2 集中式排程例子 16 圖2-3 集中式排程MSH-CSCH時間關聯範例 17 圖2-4 排程週期範例 17 圖2-5 OFDMA使用範例 18 圖2-6 OFDM與OFDMA傳輸功率比較 19 圖3-1 網狀網路OFDMA訊框架構 20 圖3-2 排程樹廣度優先搜尋法流程圖 22 圖3-3 排程樹建立範例 23 圖3-4 主要干擾範例 24 圖3-5 接收節點次要干擾範例 25 圖3-6 傳送節點次要干擾範例 25 圖3-7 選擇策略範例之網路拓樸 27 圖3-8 選擇策略範例之排程樹 27 圖3-9 Nearest_to_BS_first 選擇策略 28 圖3-10 Farthest_to_BS_first 選擇策略 28 圖3-11 Lowest_load_first 選擇策略 29 圖3-12 Highest_load_first 選擇策略 29 圖3-13 傳輸延遲範例 30 圖3-14 允入控制流程圖 31 圖3-15 網狀網路OFDMA資料子訊框架構 33 圖3-16 OFDMA 二維配置範例 33 圖3-17 OFDMA二維配置流程圖 34 圖3-18 OFDMA二維配置流程圖(續) 35 圖3-19 OFDMA 二維矩形配置範例 37 圖3-20 整體系統流程圖 39 圖3-21 整體系統流程圖(續) 40 圖4-1 總節點數為25的網路拓樸 45 圖4-2 總節點數為25的排程樹 46 圖4-3 四種鏈結選擇策略的傳輸效能比較 46 圖4-4 四種鏈結選擇策略的連線拒絕率比較 47 圖4-5 四種鏈結選擇策略的平均存取延遲比較 48 圖4-6 總節點數為36的網路拓樸 50 圖4-7 總節點數為36的排程樹 50 圖4-8 總節點數為49的網路拓樸 51 圖4-9 總節點數為49的排程樹 51 圖4-10 不同網路節點數的傳輸效能比較 52 圖4-11 不同網路節點數的連線拒絕率比較 52 圖4-12 不同網路節點數的平均存取延遲比較 53 表目次 表2-1 IEEE 802.16 standard 比較 6 表2-2 IEEE 802.16 QoS說明 7 表2-3 網路環境參數 11 表2-4 訊框長度 12 表2-5 MSH-CSCH訊息格式 14 表2-6 MSH-CSCF訊息格式 15 表4-1 模擬環境參數 42 表4-2 流量模型參數 44

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