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Author: 賴柏融
Po-Jung Lai
Thesis Title: 基於區塊鏈技術之物聯網裝置身分管理系統
Device Identity Management System in Blockchain-based IoT Enviroment
Advisor: 羅乃維
Nai-Wei Lo
Committee: 查士朝
Shi-Cho Cha
Tzong-Chen Wu
Degree: 碩士
Department: 管理學院 - 資訊管理系
Department of Information Management
Thesis Publication Year: 2018
Graduation Academic Year: 106
Language: 中文
Pages: 51
Keywords (in Chinese): 物聯網區塊鏈身分管理系統階層決定式錢包
Keywords (in other languages): Internet of Things, Blockcchain, Identity Management System, Hierarchical Deterministic Wallets
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  • 隨著物聯網的快速發展,越來越多的物聯網應用逐漸融入人們的生活中,而隱藏在這些應用背後的物聯網裝置也不斷地增加。透過這些裝置所蒐集的各種數據,物聯網應用得以提供各式各樣的便利服務。然而,這些大量部署於開放環境中,且具有連線功能的物聯網裝置,經常成為許多攻擊者的目標。故這些物聯網裝置需要一套身分管理系統來對其進行識別與管理,並基於此系統建立起其他安全機制。


    綜合上述,本研究設計了一套基於區塊鏈技術之物聯網裝置身分管理系統,藉由區塊鏈技術來確保身分的資料完整性,以及解決節點間信任的問題。另外,利用比特幣改進協定(Bitcoin Improved Protocol, BIP)中的階層決定式錢包(Hierarchical Deterministic Wallets, HD Wallets)來產生大量的金鑰對,並以此當作唯一的身分來分發給各個物聯網裝置。而該身分在被分發時,也會被儲存到區塊鏈中,故裝置能夠以該身分與其他裝置進行互動,其他裝置會將該裝置提供的身分與區塊鏈中的身分資料進行比對,以驗證身分是否合法。最後,本研究亦對所設計的系統進行安全性分析與討論,以確保系統可以抵擋常見的資安攻擊手法如竊聽攻擊、重送攻擊和中間人攻擊,以及討論於實務上可能會面臨的各種狀況。

    With the rapid advancements in Internet of Things (IoT), there are more and more IoT applications fit into people’s lives, and the same as the IoT devices with those IoT applications. Also, IoT applications could provide people kinds of convenient services by the data collected through those IoT devices. However, these IoT devices have functionality to connect the Internet and usually being massively deployed into open area, and they will become the target of malicious hacker easily. Therefore, it must be identified and controlled by an identity management system, and build other security mechanisms based on the system.

    Nevertheless, the traditional identity management system is not suitable for IoT environment due to the kinds of its characteristic. So the identity management system for IoT is needed. The system must identify each device by an unique identity which also can indicate the owner of the device, so it can identify which device has problems and who should be notified. Besides, the system must also make sure the integrity and reliability of identity. Otherwise, once the system failure of the integrity, no one will trust the identity provided by it.

    To sum up, this thesis designs a device identity management system in blockchain-based IoT environment. The proposed system is using blockchain to protect the integrity of identity and solve the problem of trust between nodes. Moreover, it generates a lot of key pairs as the unique identity of device using Hierarchical Deterministic Wallets that is defined in Bitcoin Improved Protocol. When the identity was assigned to a device, it will be store into blockchain. Therefore, the device can use its identity to interact with other devices, and those devices can check the validation of the received identity by comparing the identity stored in blockchain. Finally, this thesis adopts a security analysis for the proposed system, and confirms that the proposed system can defend common attacks such as Eavesdropping Attack, Replay Attack, and Man-in-the-middle Attack. Also, this thesis discusses several situations which should be concerned in practice for the proposed system.

    摘要 I Abstract II 誌謝 III 目錄 IV 圖目錄 VI 表目錄 VII 第一章 緒論 1 1.1 研究背景 1 1.2 研究動機與目標 2 1.3 章節介紹 3 第二章 相關技術與文獻介紹 4 2.1 身分管理系統 4 2.2 區塊鏈技術 6 2.3 階層決定式錢包 8 第三章 物聯網裝置身分管理系統 11 3.1 符號定義 11 3.2 系統架構介紹 14 3.3 系統流程介紹 17 3.4 系統機制介紹 18 3.4.1 身分註冊與產生機制 18 3.4.2 身分簽章機制 21 3.4.3 身分驗證機制 24 3.4.4 身分註銷機制 27 3.4.5 個別裝置身分簽章與驗證機制 30 第四章 分析與討論 33 4.1 安全性分析 33 4.2 實務討論 35 4.2.1 閘道器初始化 35 4.2.2 存取控制 35 4.2.3 單一脆弱點 36 4.2.4 非法物聯網裝置註冊 37 第五章 結論 38 參考文獻 40

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