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Author: 翁文彬
Wen-Pin Weng
Thesis Title: 產學合作之知識蓄積與轉置分享研究
A Study of Knowledge Accumulation and Share on Industry-Academia Cooperation Process
Advisor: 梁瓊如
Chiung-Ju Liang
Committee: 紀佳芬
Chia-Fen Chi
簡雪芳
Hsueh-Fang Chien
Degree: 碩士
Master
Department: 管理學院 - 管理研究所
Graduate Institute of Management
Thesis Publication Year: 2005
Graduation Academic Year: 93
Language: 中文
Pages: 105
Keywords (in Chinese): 建教合作產學合作知識管理學習型組織專家知識傳動桿知識輪融入式教學實務三天學校四天企業
Keywords (in other languages): Industry-academia Cooperation, Cooperative Vocational Education, Expert, Practical Education
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  • 摘 要
    大學教育是培育產業及經濟建設所需高級人力的搖籃。過去企業與技職校院共同培育人才之方式,即有所謂「建教合作」之模式。隨著時代之發展,進一步擴大結合產學雙方資源之建教類產學合作模式逐漸成形,其具體內涵大多是企業結合相關之資源,透過與大學校院理論教學與實務應用之合作策略,進行產學雙方人才與研究之交流。研究顯示,透過建教類產學合作之機制,企業一方面可以紓解企業高品質大學人力之需求壓力;另一方面,學校教師也可將實務經驗與問題,引入其教學與研究中,讓理論和實務充分配合,進而使得學術體系的知識能夠導入企業中成功的運用,達到產學相輔相成,互助互益的實質功能。
    在此知識經濟時代的潮流趨勢下,企業正面臨著經營形態轉型的挑戰與勞動市場人力的衝擊。過去企業透過「建教合作」讓專業人才之培育逐漸發揮效益,間接促進了產業的整體發展。然而由於企業經營環境的快速變動,具有專業能力的人才,勢必成為各家企業積極網羅的首選。另一方面,企業亦因而必須常常面對人才不易久留的問題。對於一個永續經營的企業,長期而穩定的企業人才培訓固然極為重要,然而進一步透過知識管理之觀點,建立產學合作知識管理導入模式之實務應用,將成為產業與技職校院共同發展重要的課題之ㄧ。
    本研究即在探討技職校院與企業共同合作之團隊,如何利用產學合作之機制,透過學校參與實務研習之師生,有效找出資訊槓桿點(Information Leverage,ILPs),進而建立知識蓄積與與轉置分享之模式,以提供產學合作之企業與大學校院參考。為驗證此模式符合產學師生之期望,研究中並進行產業專家、學校教師及參與學生對本研究所規劃「專家融入式實務教學計劃」滿意度調查。研究結果顯示,利用產學間的策略聯盟,共同規劃的「融入式教學」模式,亦即「三天學校四天企業」將實務研習與理論教學,不採切割分段方式,直接併同於學期間實施的實務教學是可行的。經由企業參與專家、學校教師與學生獲得95%以上整體滿意分析,顯示此規劃且具有長期發展的延續性,應可達到互惠三贏的局面。
    透過本研究知識管理轉置與分享模式之分析,建立起學校與產業界間的連通網路,充分協助教師及學生取得實務經驗,若以企業過去發展「學習性組織」之學用模式前進,讓企業與學校共構知識網路圖,經由知識連動桿作動,亦即產學合作透過合適之知識管理模式,將是幫助產學雙方知識順利轉置與分享之關鍵。


    A Study of Knowledge Accumulation and Share on Industry-Academia Cooperation Process
    Abstract
    The university education is the cradle that grows the high-grade manpower that meets the industry and economic construction need. “Cooperative Vocational Education” has been worked for a long time. Along with the evolution of the times, the expanded industry-academia combinations programs are under way. These communications relate to future industry and academia developments.
    The research shows that the enterprise can get qualified human resources and strengthen industry competitiveness in such an industry-academia cooperation process. On the other hand, teachers can also gain the practical experience of fixing industry problem and can have the chance to make the knowledge of the academic system be able to transfer into the enterprise. This cooperative system creates a complementary partnership and has a benefit reciprocity with each other.
    Under the current tendency of this knowledge-based economy times, the enterprise faces to the challenge of industrial regeneration and the impact of the manpower alteration. The talented persons with professional ability certainly become more important in the industry manpower arrangement. For an enterprise’s everlasting operation, the long-term but stable enterprise talented person cultivation and training are extremely important. In the realm of enterprise managerial strategy, it is emphasized that the strategy must be dynamic, and the cooperation must be continuous. Thus, there is an urgent demand for industry-academia knowledge transferring. From the standpoint of the knowledge management, a feasible cooperative mechanism is an important issue for future development of industry and university.
    This research is aimed to discuss how the Cooperative Vocational Education being undergone between the institute and the business enterprise, utilizing the school faculties and their students to generate the Information Leverage (ILPs), and to build up interacting pattern for data base and transfer as the reference for above-mentioned parties. To prove the desired pattern fulfilling the expectation of the faculties and the students, a survey called 「The Study on Satisfaction of “Expert is My Professor” Practical-Education」was conducted among expects from the enterprise, the school faculties and the students. The research indicated that the theory “4 days in the enterprise and 3 days at school” was thoroughly workable during the academic year. The survey also showed an over 95% satisfactory outcome and meant the Cooperative Vocational Education can not only be plotted out as a long-term plan but only bring forth a win-win situation for all the people involved. By analyzing the study in its pattern for knowledge management, transferring as well as sharing, it is a must to set up the connection between the school and the enterprise along with the fully assistance from the facilities and the students for their on-site experience. In short, the Industry-academia Cooperation shall become the vital factor in helping both parties transfer and share knowledge when the proper knowledge management is conducted.

    Keyword : Cooperative Vocational Education, Industry-academia Cooperation, Knowledge Management, Learning organization

    目 錄 致 謝....……………………………………………………………………………..Ⅰ 摘 要………………………………………………..………………………………..Ⅱ 目 錄……………………………………………..…………………………………..Ⅲ 表 目 錄…………………………………………..……………………………………..Ⅳ 圖 目 錄………………………………………..………………………………………..Ⅴ 第一章 前言……………………………………………………………………….......1 1.1 研究背景………………………………………………………………………......1 1.2 研究動機………………………………………………………………………......4 1.3 研究目的………………………………………………………………………......5 1.4 研究架構………................…….…………………………………….....6 第二章 文獻探討…………….……………………………………………………….....7 2.1 學習型組織的定義與特色……………………………………………………......7 2.1.1學習型組織定義…………....………………………………………………......7 2.1.2學習型組織特色……………….....…………………………………………....10 2.1.3學習型組織之技能與障礙…………….....…………………………………....11 2.2 知識管理相關理論……….…………………….………………………………...14 2.2.1由知識管理途徑建構學習型組織....…………...…………………………....14 2.2.2知識的一般定義……………………………………….....…………………....14 2.2.3知識的種類………………………....……………………...………………....15 2.3 知識蓄積的過程………….…………………………………….………….......19 2.3.1知識蓄積過程與知識管理的關係....…………………………...…………....19 2.3.2知識的選擇與取得…………………………………………………….....…....19 2.3.3知識的建構與儲存………………....…………………………………….......21 2.3.4知識的移轉與擴散………………....…………………………………….......22 2.3.5知識的創造與再利用…………………………………………………….........26 2.4 知識蓄積的障礙………….…………………………………………………......31 2.5 產學合作……………………………………………………………………….....34 2.5.1產學合作的定義………………………………………………………….........34 2.5.2產學合作的重要性……………………………………………………….........35 2.5.3流通業人力資源特質與零售事業在流通產業之重要性……………….........38 2.5.4大學校院與企業專家實務交流計畫…………………………………….........39 2.5.5專家融入式實務教學…………………………………………………….........39 2.6 學習與產學合作……………………………………………………………….....40 2.6.1學習的內涵……………………………………………………………….........40 2.6.2學習滿意度……………………………………………………………….........41 第三章 研究設計與實施…………………………………………………………………45 3.1 研究流程……………………………………………………………………….....45 3.2 專家融入識時務教學研究調查流程………………………………………….....45 3.3 研究內容與範圍……………………………………………………………….....48 3.3.1研究對象………………………………………………………………….........48 3.3.2專家融入式實務教學方式……………………………………………….........49 3.4 研究工具……………………………………………………………………….....49 3.4.1 專家訪談…………………………………………………………….…….......49 3.4.2 問卷設計…………………………………………………………………........49 3.4.2.1 問卷流程圖……………………………………………………………........50 3.4.2.2 問卷內容………………………………………………………………........51 3.4.2.3問卷內容之定義……………………………………………………….........52 3.5 資料分析方法………………………………………………………………….....55 3.5.1深度訪談法……………………………………………………………….........55 3.5.2敘述性分析……………………………………………………………….........55 3.5.3交叉分析………………………………………………………………….........56 3.5.4 單因子變異數分析(One-way ANOVA)………………………………….........56 第四章 研究結果與討論………………………………………………………………….57 4.1 產學合作之規劃與實施……………………………………………………….57 4.1.1三明治教學……………………………………………………………….........57 4.1.2專家融入式實務教學…………………………………………………….........58 4.1.3學校教學與企業所需密切配合…………………………………………........ 58 4.1.4實務研習學程實施…………………….…………………………………........60 4.1.5量販流通學程之建立…………………………………………………….........61 4.2 產學合作參與師生滿意度分析……………………………………………...62 4.2.1基本資料分析…………………………………………………………….........62 4.2.2滿意度構面之分析…………...…………………………………………........62 4.2.3變數與題項交叉分析…………………………………………………….........67 4.2.4ANOVA彙整……..…………………….………………………………….........86 4.2.5參與學生之整體分析…………………………………………………….........89 第五章 建構參與成員知識分享與轉置之模式....……………………….…………..90 5.1 知識管理導入構面…......................………………………………...90 5.2 幫助企業潛力人才與技術之知識蓄積與擴散..……..………………………...90 5.3 企業知識網路圖....…....................………………………………...90 5.3.1企業透過知識網路圖……....………....……………………………………...91 5.3.2 知識網路圖的工作輪調潤滑機制......…..………………………………....91 5.4 大學教育與企業共構知識網路圖............………………………………...92 5.4.1 策略聯盟夥伴關係有助於知識交流關係....…………………...…………...93 5.4.2 知識傳動桿之連動幫助知識輪順利運轉..…....…………………………....93 第六章 結論..............................…….….…………………………...94 6.1專家融入式教學規劃整體實施滿意印象………………...………….…………….94 6.2策略聯盟產學合作新關係之建置.........................................94 6.3產學合作導入知識管理………………………………………….…………...…….95 參考文獻................................….…………………………………...97 附錄一:問卷............................…….………………………………….103 表 目 錄 表2-1 學習型組織定義…………………………………………………………………09 表2-2 兩種形式的知識…………………………………………………………………16 表2-3 Spender 的組織知識種類矩陣…………………………………………………17 表2-4 知識種類三向度的知識分類表…………………………………………………18 表2-5 知識選擇與取得之分類…………………………………………………………20 表2-6 內隱知識與外顯知識交互作用創造的知識……………………………………29 表2-7 國內推動產學合作單位…………………………………………………………37 表2-8 學生學習滿意度構面……………………………………………………………44 表3-1 行銷與流通實務科目學分表……………………………………………………48 表3-2 構面題數分配表…………………………………………………………………31 表3-3 實習教學內容與環境之構面表…………………………………………………32 表3-4 學生行為意向之構面表…………………………………………………………32 表4-1 三明治教學與專家融入式實務教學之分析……………………………………58 表4-2 合作企業輔助規劃之實務研習課程……………………………………………59 表4-3 學校規劃之量販流通學程………………………………………………………61 表4-4 各年級實習人數…………………………………………………………………62 表4-5 各實習部門人數規劃……………………………………………………………62 表4-6 學生學習滿意度各因素構面之全量表分析……………………………………63 表4-7 不同年級學生的學習滿意度各構面考驗分析表………………………………63 表4-8 不同性別學生的學習滿意度各構面考驗分析表………………………………64 表4-9 不同部別學生的學習滿意度各層面考驗分析表………………………………65 表4-10 讓學生分享知識與理念與變數之交叉分析……………………………………67 表4-11 能鼓勵學生對教師的觀念提出疑問與變數之交叉分析………………………68 表4-12 能善用各種教學技術與變數之交叉分析………………………………………68 表4-13 任課老師的親和力與變數之交叉分析…………………………………………69 表4-14 對觀念或理念給予相關背景說明與變數之交叉分析…………………………70 表4-15 能將理論與實務相呼應與變數之交叉分析……………………………………70 表4-16 能提出當前的發展與變數之交叉分析…………………………………………71 表4-17 老師能提供專業課程相關的資訊與變數之交叉分析…………………………72 表4-18 對實習工作場所的安全設備,我感到與變數之交叉分析……………………72 表4-19 對實習工作場所的上班交通便利性,我感到與變數之交叉分析……………73 表4-20 對實習工作場所的舒適度,我感到與變數之交叉分析………………………74 表4-21 我認為主管給予的正面壓力有助於學習,我感到與變數之交叉分析………74 表4-22 同仁間的互動有助於激勵作用,我感到與變數之交叉分析…………………75 表4-23 可引發對該課程的興趣」與變數之交叉分析…………………………………76 表4-24 對於目前的實習部門符合自己的興趣與變數之交叉分析……………………76 表4-25 可獲得所學課程和實務工作能相互應用與變數之交叉析……………………77 表4-26 我有恆心完成整個課程與變數之交叉分析……………………………………78 表4-27 我有保持積極進取的學習態度與變數之交叉分析……………………………78 表4-28 授課教師熱心教學與變數之交叉分析…………………………………………79 表4-29 提起學生學習興趣與變數之交叉分析…………………………………………80 表4-30 實務研習課程,我有學習困難會向老師反應與變數之交叉分析……………80 表4-31 實務研習課程,我有興趣的主題我會向老師建議與變數之交叉分析………81 表4-32 實習現場我有適應困難,會向指導人員反應與變數之交叉分析……………82 表4-33 實習現場我有興趣的主題,會向指導人員建議與變數之交叉分析…………82 表4-34 實務研習課程,有學習困難,我會向其他同學報怨與變數之交叉分析……83 表4-35 實務研習課程,有學習困難,會向本系相關單位反應與變數之交叉分析…84 表4-36 參與實務研習課程後,我樂於對外推廣此課程與變數之交叉分析…………84 表4-37 我會與家人分享我的實習心得與變數之交叉分析……………………………85 表4-38 授課教師教學內容在年級、性別、部別之ANOVA彙整表…………………86 表4-39 課程組織與涵蓋的廣度在年級、性別、部別之ANOVA彙整表……………86 表4-40 實習環境人與事在年級、性別、部別之ANOVA彙整………………………87 表4-41 學習態度在年級、性別、部別之ANOVA彙整表……………………………87 表4-42 個別友善在年級、性別、部別之ANOVA彙整表……………………………88 表4-43 內部回應在年級、性別、部別之ANOVA彙整表……………………………88 表4-44 外部回應在年級、性別、部別之ANOVA彙整表……………………………88 圖 目 錄 圖1-1 產學合作知識蓄積觀念架構圖…………………………………………………06 圖2-1 組織之知識及知識管理概念圖…………………………………………………19 圖2-2 Hedlun的知識轉換模式…………………………………………………………23 圖2-3 SECI 知識轉換模式 ……………………………………………………………24 圖2-4 現今企業與組織匯聚知識圖庫…………………………………………………26 圖2-5 知識創造螺旋……………………………………………………………………27 圖2-6 組織知識創造五過程……………………………………………………………28 圖2-7 關懷與知識創造過程……………………………………………………………29 圖2-8 知識創造論四個循環基本架構…………………………………………………31 圖2-9 產學合作與建教合作之關係分析圖……………………………………………34 圖2-10 人類需求的層級…………………………………………………………………42 圖3-1 研究流程圖………………………………………………………………………46 圖3-2 專家融入式實務教學課程施行流程……………………………………………47 圖3-3 問卷設計流程……………………………………………………………………50 圖3-4 大潤發組織圖……………………………………………………………………53 圖3-5 分店組織圖………………………………………………………………………54 圖4-1 合作企業接續儲備幹部人力資源培訓流程……………………………………60 圖5-1 企業知識網路圖…………………………………………………………………92圖5-2 大學教育與企業共構知識網路圖………………………………………………92

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