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Author: 俞光回
David Kuang-Hui Yu
Thesis Title: 快閃記憶體儲存系統之壽命與可靠性提升
Lifetime and Reliability Improvement for NAND Flash Memory Storage System
Advisor: 謝仁偉
Jen-Wei Hsieh
Committee: 張立平
Li-Ping Zhang
吳晉賢
Jin-Xian Wu
張原豪
Yuan-Hao Zhang
陳雅淑
Ya-Shu Chen
修丕承
Pi-Cheng Xiu
Degree: 博士
Doctor
Department: 電資學院 - 資訊工程系
Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering
Thesis Publication Year: 2021
Graduation Academic Year: 109
Language: 英文
Pages: 105
Keywords (in Chinese): 快閃記憶體壽命可靠性保留時間差異演化非對稱編碼
Keywords (in other languages): NAND flash memory, lifetime, reliability, retention time, differential evolution, asymmetric coding
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  • 由於快閃記憶體技術已縮小到 1x nm,並且可以在一個單元中存儲更多位,因此快閃記憶體的存儲密度得到了顯著提高。然而,這些技術趨勢也嚴重損害了快閃記憶體的編程速度和耐久性。內部數據保留時間是快閃記憶體單元可以正確保存數據的持續時間。通過放鬆內部數據保留時間,可以提高頁面編程速度和塊耐用性。然而,根據工業標準,快閃的保留時間通常需要持續數年。因此需要一個刷新方案來處理保留時間的減少。本文的第一部分提出了具有鬆弛管理(RTR)方案的多級保留時間隊列,以滿足可靠存儲系統的保留時間要求。根據我們的實驗結果,所提出的 RTR 方案不僅可以顯著提高快閃存儲系統的耐久性和性能,還可以顯著提高其能耗。除了工藝縮放和每單元多位技術,學術界和工業界都開始發展3D堆疊技術,以進一步提高快閃記憶體的存儲密度。然而,隨著堆疊層數和存儲密度的增加,3D快閃記憶體也面臨更高的原始誤碼率 (RBER) 和更短的使用壽命。觀察到可靠的單元狀態具有較少的程序干擾和數據保留錯誤,本論文的第二部分提出了一種具有非對稱編碼(DEA-AC)方案的差分演化演算法,以增加將數據存儲在更可靠的單元狀態中的概率,從而減少RBER。實驗結果顯示,與基線、ACA、ACS-SPEA、UAC-nLC、WBMP、和 SCB 方案相比較,建議方案可分別平均減少48.88%, 65.45%, 52.61%, 61.99%, 80.19%, and 33.18%的RBER。


    As flash memory technology has been scaled down to 1x nm and more
    bits can be stored in a cell, the storage density of flash memory has been significantly improved. However, these technical trends also severely hurt the
    programming speed and endurance of flash memory. The internal data retention
    time is the duration for which a flash cell can correctly hold data. By
    relaxing internal data retention time, both the page programming speed and
    the block endurance could be improved. However, the retention time of flash
    memory typically requires to last for several years according to the industrial
    standard. Thus a refreshment scheme is required to deal with the decreasing
    of retention time. The first part of this dissertation proposes multi-level
    retention-time queues with a relaxation management (RTR) scheme to meet
    the retention-time requirement for a reliable storage system. Based on our
    experimental results, not only endurance and performance but also energy
    consumption of the flash-memory storage system could be significantly improved
    by the proposed RTR scheme. In addition to the process scaling and
    multi-bits per cell technologies, both academia and industry have begun to
    develop 3D stacking technology to further increase the storage density of
    flash memory. However, as the number of stacked layers and storage density
    increase, 3D flash memory also suffers from a higher raw bit error rate
    (RBER) and a shorter lifetime. Observing that reliable cell states have less
    program disturbance and data retention errors, the second part of this dissertation proposes a differential evolution algorithm with asymmetric coding
    (DEA-AC) scheme to increase the probability of storing data in more reliable
    cell states, thereby reducing the RBER. The experimental results showed
    that the proposed DEA-AC scheme could averagely reduce RBER by 48.88%,
    65.45%, 52.61%, 61.99%, 80.19%, and 33.18% compared with baseline, ACA,
    ACS-SPEA, UAC-nLC, WBMP, and SCB schemes.

    1 Introduction ....................................................6 2 A Management Scheme of Multi-Level Retention-Time Queues for Improving the Endurance of Flash-Memory Storage Devices. . . . 11 2.1 Background and Related Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.1.1 The Retention Error of NAND Flash Memory . . . . . ..........11 2.1.2 Incremental Step Pulse Programming (ISPP) . . . . .......... 12 2.1.3 Refreshment with ISPP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... . 12 2.1.4 Retention-Time Relaxation Technology . . . . . . . . ....... 14 2.2 Retention-Time Relaxation (RTR) Scheme . . . . . . . ... . . . 15 2.2.1 Overview and System Architecture . . . . . . . . . . ....... 15 2.2.2 Management Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .. . 17 2.2.3 Data Allocator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 22 2.2.4 Multi-level Refresh Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 23 2.2.5 Garbage Collector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 27 2.2.6 Wear Leveler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 28 2.2.7 Illustrative Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 33 2.3 Performance Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 2.3.1 Experiment Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..38 2.3.2 Comparisons with Other Schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . ......40 2.3.3 The Impacts of Different Parameter Settings . . . . . . .....44 2.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 3 Differential Evolution Algorithm with Asymmetric Coding for Solving the Reliability Problem of 3D-TLC CT Flash Memory Storage Systems ............................................49 3.1 Background and Related Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 3.1.1 Error Characterization of NAND Flash Memory . . . . .........49 3.1.2 Traditional SSD Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..50 3.1.3 Differential Evolution Algorithm (DEA) . . . . . . . . ......51 3.1.4 Asymmetric Coding Schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ 52 3.2 Differential Evolution Algorithm with an Asymmetric Coding (DEA-AC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 3.2.1 Overview and System Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . ......57 3.2.2 Terminologies in DEA-AC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .....58 3.2.3 DEA-AC Encoder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....60 3.2.4 Evolution Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 3.2.5 DEA-AC Decoder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....71 3.2.6 An Illustrative Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...74 3.3 Performance Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 3.3.1 Experiment Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..80 3.3.2 Experimental Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..83 3.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91 4 Conclusion ......................................................93

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