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Author: 呂崇富
Chung-Fu Lu
Thesis Title: 適用於無線網路之無憑證可鑑別群體金鑰協議機制
Certificateless Authenticated Group Key Agreement Schemes for Wireless Networks
Advisor: 吳宗成
Tzong-Chen Wu
Committee: 雷欽隆
Chin-Laung Lei
楊中皇
Chung-Huang Yang
許建隆
Chien-Lung Hsu
賴源正
Yuan-Cheng Lai
Degree: 博士
Doctor
Department: 管理學院 - 資訊管理系
Department of Information Management
Thesis Publication Year: 2011
Graduation Academic Year: 99
Language: 英文
Pages: 96
Keywords (in Chinese): 無憑證鑑別橢圓曲線群體金鑰協議非平衡無線網路隱私第三代行動通訊低資源行動裝置
Keywords (in other languages): unbalanced wireless networks
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  • 由於無線環境易遭側錄與非平衡等特性,在無線網路中提供群體通訊的安全及隱私保護就更加值得關切。本論文分別針對無線區域網路以及行動通訊網路的群體通訊應用所面臨的相關議題,提出多種安全且有效率的可鑑別群體金鑰協議機制,使群體通訊可達到相互鑑別、抵抗假冒攻擊、金鑰確認及群體金鑰更新等需求與特性。

    本論文首先提出一個適用於非平衡無線網路的無憑證可鑑別群體金鑰協議(wAGKA)機制。接下來,再根據wAGKA機制提出一個具隱私保護的無憑證可鑑別群體金鑰協議(wAGKA-PP)機制。wAGKA及wAGKA-PP機制結合無憑證公開金鑰及橢圓曲線密碼學,所以不需要任何公開金鑰憑證,可以在單一的邏輯步驟內同時完成個體鑑別及驗證預期的公開金鑰之正確性。與過去其他學者所提出的相關機制比較,在相同的安全等級下,wAGKA及wAGKA-PP機制所需之金鑰與訊息長度均較小,並具有較少的通訊負載及計算複雜度,此外,wAGKA-PP機制具有使用者匿名性,更適用於傳統的無線網路環境。

    欲將既行的群體金鑰協議機制實作應用於通用移動通訊系統(Universal Mobile Telecommunications System,縮寫:UMTS),則仍須在既行的UMTS架構中增加許多額外的密碼函數或模組,因此實作上較不可行。有鑑於此,本論文基於既行的UMTS架構提出一個可鑑別群體金鑰協議(uAGKA)機制,該機制可以同時建立三種會談金鑰,其中群體金鑰可運用於群體機密通訊,另兩種金鑰則可運用於子群體應用服務或群體金鑰更新。本論文提出的uAGKA機制因為僅須使用既行的UMTS安全功能函數及互斥或運算,所以可以直接相容於既行的UMTS架構,並在設計上也可滿足既行的UMTS標準之合法監聽需求與特性。


    Due to the vulnerable to eavesdropping and unbalance properties of the wireless environments, the security and privacy protection for group communication on the open wireless networks has become an increasing concern. This dissertation considers the subjects of group communication applications for wireless local area networks and mobile communication networks to propose secure and efficient authenticated group key agreement schemes. They can achieve the security requirements of mutual authentication, impersonation attack resistance, explicit key confirmation, and group key updating for group communications.

    This dissertation first presents a wireless authenticated group key agreement scheme (wAGKA) for general wireless networks. Then we propose a wireless authenticated group key agreement scheme with privacy-preservation (wAGKA-PP) based on the proposed wAGKA scheme. Elaborating on merits of the certificateless public keys and elliptic curve cryptography, the entity authentication and the authenticity of the intended public keys can be simultaneously verified in a logically single step without requiring any public key certificates. And, bit sizes of the keys and the related messages are relatively smaller than those of the previously proposed schemes for the same security level. They save the required communication overheads, and computational complexities. Furthermore, the proposed wAGKA-PP scheme provides the property of user anonymity. The proposed wAGKA and wAGKA-PP schemes are more secure and efficient than previously proposed schemes for general wireless networks.

    In order to implement the current group key agreement schemes into the UMTS, it needs to increase some extra security functions or modules to the existing UMTS framework but that is non-feasible. Hence, this dissertation proposes a UMTS authenticated group key agreement scheme (uAGKA) based on UMTS framework. The proposed uAGKA scheme can establish three types of secret keys shared by the participant users. One key is used for secure group communication and the other keys can be used for group key updating or subgroup applications. The proposed uAGKA scheme is compatible to UMTS architecture since it exploits only the existing UMTS security functions and exclusive-or (XOR) operation. And, it can achieve the lawful interception requirement and recommendations in existing UMTS standards.

    中文摘要 i ABSTRACT iii 誌謝 v TABLE OF CONTENTS vi LIST OF FIGURES ix LIST OF TABLES x SYMBOLS xi Chapter 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Background 2 1.1.1 Issues on AGKA for Wireless Networks 2 1.1.2 Issues on AGKA for UMTS 4 1.1.3 Considerations to Designing Secure AGKA Schemes 6 1.2 Motivation and Objective 9 1.3 Organization of Dissertation 10 Chapter 2 Preliminaries 11 2.1 Self-certified Public Keys 11 2.2 Related Security Problems and Assumptions 13 2.2.1 Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem 13 2.2.2 One Way Hash Function Assumption 14 2.2 Related works 15 2.3.1 Authenticated Key Agreement 15 2.3.2 Authenticated Group Key Agreement (AGKA) 22 2.3.2.1 Review of Bresson et al.’s scheme 23 2.3.2.2 Review of Tseng’s scheme 26 Chapter 3 Proposed AGKA Schemes for General Wireless Networks 30 3.1 The Proposed wAGKA Scheme 31 3.1.1 System Setup Phase 31 3.1.2 Node Registration Phase 32 3.1.3 Authenticated Group Key Agreement Phase 33 3.1.4 Node Leaving Phase 37 3.1.5 Node Joining Phase 39 3.2 The Proposed wAGKA-PP Scheme 42 3.2.1 System Setup Phase 42 3.2.2 Node Registration Phase 43 3.2.3 Authenticated Group Key Agreement Phase 43 3.2.4 Node Leaving Phase 46 3.2.5 Node Joining Phase 48 3.3 Security Analyses 51 3.4 Performance Evaluations 58 3.5 Discussions 63 Chapter 4 Proposed AGKA Scheme for UMTS 67 4.1 The Proposed uAGKA Scheme 68 4.1.1 User Registration Phase 69 4.1.2 Mutual Authentication Phase 69 4.1.3 Group Key Agreement Phase 70 4.1.4 Key Updating Phase 75 4.2 Security Analyses 76 4.3 Performance Evaluations 78 4.4 Implementation Considerations 79 Chapter 5 Concluding Remarks 82 5.1 Conclusions 82 5.2 Further Works 85 Bibliography 86 Biography 92

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