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Author: 連尚誼
Shang-Yi Lien
Thesis Title: 部屬信任主管,建言行為與工作績效的關係 : 主管 -主管交換的調節角色
The Relationships among Trust in Leader, Voice Behavior and Task Performance: The Moderating Role of Leader-leader Exchange
Advisor: 鄭仁偉
Jen-Wei Cheng
Committee: 鄭仁偉
Jen-Wei Cheng
Shih-Hao Lu
Chun-Nan Chen
Degree: 碩士
Department: 管理學院 - 企業管理系
Department of Business Administration
Thesis Publication Year: 2021
Graduation Academic Year: 109
Language: 英文
Pages: 91
Keywords (in Chinese): 社會交換理論部屬信任主管建言行為任務績效主管-主管交換
Keywords (in other languages): social exchange theory, trust in leader, voice behavior, task performance, leader-leader exchange
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  • 部屬的建言行為可以促進組織效率並有效改善問題,在企業運行中扮演至關重要的角色。近年來組織越來越依賴創新與迅速反應,以求適應市場的瞬息萬變與在激烈的競爭中生存,因此,如何促進員工的建言行為成為學術界與業界十分關切的話題。

    部屬雖可提出對組織有益的建言,但由於主管多少與組織問題相關聯,建言行為也可能對其職涯產生風險。根據過往文獻,Gao, Janssen, and Shi (2011)與Holland, Cooper, and Sheehan (2017)皆認為部屬信任主管會增強雙方的關係承諾,因此本研究認為,當雙方建立起共享的價值觀及共同目標後,高度的信任會促使雙方樂意為共同的利益而努力,甚至不惜犧牲自己暫時的利益而合作以尋求長遠的共同利益,這種自我犧牲的精神,即會促進正面的建設性建言。另一方面,關係主義為華人文化的常見現象,並被視為建構信任系統的關鍵因素,本研究認為,部屬會根據其上司與其直屬上司的「主管-主管交換關係」決定是否提出建言。因此本文以社會交換理論為基礎,開發和建立階層線性模型,探討建言行為在部屬信任主管與任務績效的中介角色,以及主管-主管交換關係對部屬信任主管與建言行為的調節效果,並同時比較非營利與營利樣本在建言機制上的差異。

    本研究蒐集326份非營利組織與278份營利組織的主管-部屬配對樣本,並以結構方程模型進行統計的假設與驗證,研究結果指出:部屬是否信任主管為員工建言的關鍵因素,並同時影響其任務績效的表現。另外,在營利樣本中,主管-主管交換關係能使部屬更容易提出建言行為,並有較高的任務績效。因此,本文研究貢獻在於(1)透過建言行為的中介機制拓展了我們對主管-主管交換關係中社會交換性質的理解,並回答了有關建言行為動機的相關問題 (2)培訓主管「值得被信任」的特質會透過下屬的建言行為獲得額外的投資回報,且建立和維護高效的工作系統可培養團隊的支持性建言與建立較佳的組織環境。

    Although subordinates' voice behavior can emphasize suggestions for change intended to benefit the group or organization, it often includes risk and cost for subordinates. Because the supervisor is more or less accountable for organizational problems, the voice of employees is easy to be a thorn in the supervisor’s flesh and bring risks to their career. Past researches have indicated that employee trust in leaders will enhance the relationship commitment of both sides (Gao, Janssen & Shi, 2011; Holland, Cooper & Sheehan, 2017). Therefore, this study stated that when subordinates trust in their leader, both parties can speak the truth to create organizational interests. On the other hand, we know that “Guanxi” is a pervasive phenomenon in Chinese culture, which is a direct outcome of the traditional cultural value and is viewed as a trust-building system. Thus, subordinates may consider speaking up based on the quality of their leader-leader exchange (LLX). This study is based on social exchange theory to develop and test a hierarchical linear model (HLM). We tested the mediating effect of voice behavior and the moderating effect of leader-leader exchange to find out what circumstances, how, and why employees speak up. Besides, we also compared non-profit organization and for-profit organization samples to find out whether the difference between the voice mechanism.

    We totally collected 326 and 278 dyad questionnaires from non-profit organizations and for-profit organizations. As hypothesized, results of structural equation modeling analyses revealed that: (1) in both samples, subordinates trusting in leaders enhance their voice behavior which subsequently leads to task performance. (2) in for-profit organization samples, trust in leaders may significantly enhance employees’ voice behavior when leader–leader exchange is high. In theoretical implications, this study responds to an important question regarding the boundary of voice behavior motivation by introducing cross-level LLX from an affective perspective of social exchange. In practical implications, we suggested that training managers to become more ‘‘trustworthy’’ could provide additional returns on investment by boosting subordinates' voice behavior. Furthermore, organizations should aim to develop a broader climate that encourages trust and supportive communication relationships across organizational levels.

    摘要 I Abstract II 誌謝 III List of Figure VII List of Table VIII CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 4 2.1 Voice Behavior 4 2.2 Trust in Leader 6 2.3 Task Performance 11 2.4 Leader-leader Exchange 13 2.5 Trust in Leader and Voice Behavior Relationship 15 2.6 Trust in Leader and Task Performance Relationship 16 2.7 Mediators of the Effect of Voice Behavior 17 2.8 Moderators of the Effects of Leader-leader Exchange 18 CHAPTER 3 METHODS 20 3.1 Research Structure 20 3.2 Participants and Procedures 21 3.3 Measures 24 3.3.1 Trust in Leader 25 3.3.2 Voice Behavior 25 3.3.3 Task Performance 26 3.3.4 Leader-leader Exchange 27 3.4 Common Method Variance Assessment 28 3.5 Control Variables 29 3.6 Analysis 30 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS 32 4.1 Sample Profile 32 4.1.1 Non-profit Organization 32 4.1.2 For-profit Organization 33 4.2 Descriptive Statistics 39 4.2.1 Non-profit Organization 39 4.2.2 For-profit Organization 40 4.3 Confirmatory Factor Analyses 45 4.3.1 Non-profit Organization 45 4.3.2 For-profit Organization 45 4.4 Tests of Hypotheses 46 4.4.1 Trust in Leader and Voice Behavior 47 4.4.2 Trust in Leader and Task Performance 48 4.4.3 The Mediating Effect of Voice Behavior in Trust in Leader and Task Performance 48 4.4.4 The Moderating Effect of Leader-leader Exchange in Trust in Leader and Voice Behavior 51 4.4.5 The Moderating Effect of Leader-leader Exchange in Mediation Model 53 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION 57 5.1 Summary of the Research Finding 57 5.2 Theoretical Implications 59 5.3 Limitations and Implication for Future Research 61 5.4 Practical Implications and Conclusion 63 Reference 65 Appendix (A) 76 Appendix (B) 77 Appendix (C) 79

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