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Author: 林承達
CHENG-DA LIN
Thesis Title: 岩石風格模型生成之研究
A Study on 3D Rock-style Model Generation
Advisor: 戴文凱
Wen-Kai Tai
Committee: 賴祐吉
Yu-Chi Lai
林士勛
Shih-Syun Lin
Degree: 碩士
Master
Department: 電資學院 - 資訊工程系
Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering
Thesis Publication Year: 2021
Graduation Academic Year: 109
Language: 中文
Pages: 208
Keywords (in Chinese): 程序化內容生成岩石堆砌裂痕Lowpoly風格鑽石切割斷裂
Keywords (in other languages): Procedural Content Generation, Rock tiling, CracK, Low-poly style, Diamond cutting, Fracture
Reference times: Clicks: 216Downloads: 13
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  • 在遊戲、動畫及電影的領域中,岩石風格的場景設計相當常見! 而且此類型題材的角色、玩家的背景故事和互動也與岩石風格的場景十分密切。因此,建構岩石風格的各式模型所使用的方法就顯得相當重要。若以現有建模軟體或相關探討研究與工具製作,通常會在單體岩石生成或岩石堆砌上擇一實作,鮮少能兩者兼顧,且在單體岩石、岩石堆砌的生成也因為模型生成方法的相關限制導致無法生成理想的岩石模型。我們的目標是提出一套生成Lowpoly風格岩石、Lowpoly風格岩石堆砌、鑽石切割藝術模型之方法,透過程序化內容生成的技術來生成模型,讓專業與非專業的使用者也能快速地製作岩石風格場景中的各式模型。我們研發了一套生成Lowpoly風格岩石、Lowpoly風格岩石堆砌、鑽石切割藝術模型之方法,以類似拼裝樂高積木的概念,使用者可以使用我們提供的基本形元在3D 空間中自由擺放,堆疊出粗略的岩石外形,並在形元上產生取樣點計算3D Convex Hull 生成Lowpoly風格岩石;使用者甚至可以輸入現成模型,以Voronoi Diagram 或Binary Space Partition 的樣式,產生切割平面切割模型,最後計算3D Convex Hull 生成Lowpoly風格岩石堆砌、鑽石切割藝術的風格。在生成Lowpoly風格岩石堆砌模型後能再進一步編輯,使用者可以選擇各個單體
    Lowpoly風格岩石進行Subdivision 平滑表面,或是再切割模型,於切縫處套用Browniam Motion 生成裂痕。透過我們的方法能大大地減少製作岩石模型所消耗的時間與人力。我們的方法以程序化進行岩石風格模型的生成與編輯,使用者不需要熟悉岩石的排列結構、裂痕樣式以及建模技巧就能夠快速的建構出各種岩石風格模型。並且我們已經能夠製作在真實世界、遊戲世界甚至繪圖中的各式岩石風格物件。在實驗結果中,我們將參照現實、遊戲、繪圖中的岩石與藝術品進行模型生成,
    來展示我們的研究成果。


    In the fields of games, animation, and movies, rock scene is quite common, and the characters, player’s background stories and interactions are also very close to rock scenes.
    Therefore, the methods used to construct various models of rock are very important. In existing modeling software or related research and tools, which usually choose between single rock generation or rock tiling. It can’t have both fish and bear paws. Because of the related limitations of the model generation method, an ideal rock model can’t be generated opportunely. Our goal is to propose a set of methods for generating low-poly style rocks, tiled low-poly
    style rocks, and diamond cutting art models. The models are generated through the technology of procedural content generation, so that professional and nonprofessional users can quickly create diverse models for rock scenes.
    For the rock model generation, we have developed a set of methods to generate low-poly style rocks, tiled low-poly style rocks, and diamond cut art models, similar to the concept of assembling Lego bricks. Users can tile rough shapes of ideal rock through the basic primitives provided by us, and use the primitives to generate low-poly style rocks, and even import readymade models, which can be directly converted into low-poly style rock and tiled low-poly style and diamond cutting art styles through our methods, which greatly reduces the time and manpower spent in making models. As experimental results show, Our method uses procedural methods to generate and edit rock models. Users do not need to be familiar with the arrangement of rocks, crack patterns, and modeling skills to quickly construct various rock models. Finally, we have been able to make many kinds of rock style objects in the real world, game world and even drawing to show the effectiveness and efficiency.

    論文摘要. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II 誌謝. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III 目錄. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV 圖目錄. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IX 表目錄. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XVIII 1 緒論. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 研究背景與動機. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 研究目標. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.3 研究方法概述. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.4 研究貢獻. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.5 本論文之章節結構. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2 文獻探討. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.1 岩石平舖. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.2 岩石模型程序化生成工具. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3 裂痕生成. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3 研究方法. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.1 匯入模型或產生形元. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.2 岩石外形生成與參數調整. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.2.1 生成Lowpoly 風格岩石堆砌. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3.2.2 Binary Space Partition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 3.2.3 Auto Cut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 3.2.4 Catmull Clark Subdivision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 3.2.5 Constraint Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 3.3 岩石裂痕生成與參數調整. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 3.3.1 分裂點. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 3.4 隨機取樣控制. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 4 實驗結果與分析. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 4.1 單體Lowpoly 風格. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 4.1.1 鵝卵石. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 4.1.2 球形Lowpoly 風格岩石. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 4.1.3 卡通風球形Lowpoly 風格岩石. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 4.1.4 方岩. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 4.1.5 卡通方岩. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 4.1.6 錐形Lowpoly 風格岩石. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 4.1.7 卡通風錐形Lowpoly 風格岩石. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 4.1.8 圓柱形Lowpoly 風格岩石. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 4.1.9 球形寶石. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 4.1.10 橢球形寶石. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 4.1.11 卡通風球形寶石. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 4.1.12 柱狀水晶. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 4.2 Lowpoly 風格岩石堆砌. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 4.2.1 卡通風拱門. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 4.2.2 拱門. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 4.2.3 石牆. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 4.2.4 英文字母. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 4.2.5 長椅. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 4.2.6 貓雕像. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 4.2.7 橋. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 4.2.8 水井. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 4.2.9 壁爐. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 4.2.10 火坑. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 4.2.11 蛋雕像. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 4.2.12 馬雕像. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 4.2.13 骷顱頭. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 4.2.14 樓梯. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 4.2.15 塔樓. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 4.2.16 魔像. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 4.2.17 土窯. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 4.3 鑽石切割藝術. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 4.3.1 心形寶石. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 4.3.2 花瓶. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 4.3.3 桌子. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 4.3.4 花盆. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 4.3.5 長凳. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 4.3.6 碗. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 4.3.7 熊雕像. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 4.3.8 狼雕像. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 4.4 岩石場景. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 4.5 取樣點參數調整. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 4.5.1 Sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 4.5.2 Cube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 4.5.3 Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 4.5.4 Capsule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 4.5.5 岩石堆砌拱門. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 4.6 裂痕. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 4.6.1 Linear Crack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 4.6.2 Alligator Crack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 4.6.3 拱門上的Linear Crack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 4.6.4 拱門上的Alligator Crack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 4.7 以高模烘焙貼圖. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 4.7.1 拱門. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 4.7.2 火坑. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 4.7.3 蛋雕像. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 4.7.4 橋. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 4.7.5 土窯. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 4.7.6 長椅. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 4.7.7 樓梯. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 4.7.8 骷顱頭. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 5 結論與建議. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 5.1 結論. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 5.2 未來努力方向. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 參考文獻. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183

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