Basic Search / Detailed Display

Author: 洪梅星
Stella Patricia Angdiarto
Thesis Title: 以煅燒牡蠣殼灰、奈米二氧化矽、脫硫石膏及β-半水石膏增進單劑型鹼激發爐石粉漿體工程性質之研究
Study on the Enhancement of Engineering Properties of One-part Alkali-activated Slag Paste Using Calcined Oyster Shell Ash, Nano-silica, FGD Gypsum, and β-hemihydrate
Advisor: 陳君弢
Chun-Tao Chen
張大鵬
Ta-Peng Chang
Committee: 黃然
Huang Ran
 廖文正
Wen-Zheng Liao
歐昱辰
Yu-Chen Ou
洪崇展
Chong-Zhan Hong
陳立憲
Li-Hsien Chen
邱建國
Jian-Guo Qiu
陳君弢
Chun-Tao Chen
張大鵬
Ta-Peng Chang
Degree: 博士
Doctor
Department: 工程學院 - 營建工程系
Department of Civil and Construction Engineering
Thesis Publication Year: 2023
Graduation Academic Year: 112
Language: 英文
Pages: 147
Keywords (in Chinese): 單劑型鹼激發爐石粉β-半水石膏FGD煅燒牡蠣殼灰β-半水石膏奈米二氧化矽
Keywords (in other languages): One-part alkali-activated slag, calcined oyster shell ash, FGD, nano-silica, β-hemihydrate
Reference times: Clicks: 79Downloads: 0
Share:
School Collection Retrieve National Library Collection Retrieve Error Report
  • 經研究發現,以爐石粉、煅燒牡蠣殼灰(COSA)、奈米二氧化矽粉、煙氣脫硫(FGD)石膏和β-半水石膏(HH)等組合之粉末混合物可改善單劑型鹼激發爐石基漿體之工程性質,隨著COSA質量從10%增加至20%,漿體初凝時間和終凝時間分別從298分鐘和365分鐘減少到157分鐘和275分鐘,添加納米矽粉發現有類似降低工作性及加速凝結時間之效果,此外,以3%質量奈米矽粉和20% 質量COSA混合物製成之試體,相較於僅添加20%質量 COSA之試體,分別顯著提高抗壓強度31.55%,熱導率從0.434 W/(m.K)增加到0.715 W/(m.K),吸水率從10.43%降低到3.02%,
    以10% 質量FGD石膏與10% 質量COSA混合物為最佳組合,將試體抗壓強度提高到46.53 MPa。這種強度的改善歸因於存在之氫氧化鈣被CaSO₄·2H₂O有效消耗,導致水化熱從32°C降至21.5°C。相比之下,在混合物添加10%質量β-半水石膏導致氫氧化鈣未能被成功消耗,使水化熱從32°C增加到39°C。因此,卜作嵐反應受到抑制,導致28天抗壓強度降至39.6 MPa。
    此外,10% 質量FGD石膏與10%質量 COSA組合之試體在水中養護後之抗壓強度從46.53 MPa降至41.12 MPa,這種減少歸因於由COSA和FGD之鹼離子(例如Ca2+)濾滲到水中所致。相反地,所有含有FGD和HH之試體顯示出更高的抗壓強度,因為試體中的硫酸根離子(SO₄²⁻)阻止鹼性物質之滲出。因此,在混合物中觀察到如鈣礬石和C-S-H/C-A-S-H膠體之水化物,其中鈣礬石擔任填充試體孔隙之作用。


    The engineering properties of a one-part alkali-activated slag-based paste were investigated to be improved by applying the powder blends of slag, calcined oyster shell ash (COSA), nano-silica, flue gas desulphurization (FGD) gypsum, and β-hemihydrate (HH). The paste, with an increase of COSA from 10% to 20% by mass, had its initial and final setting times reduced from 298 minutes and 365 minutes to 157 minutes and 275 minutes, respectively. Similar results of reducing workability and accelerating setting times by adding nano-silica were found. In addition, the mixture of 3 mass% nano-silica and 20 mass% COSA, significantly increased compressive strength by 31.55%, enhanced thermal conductivity from 0.434 W/(m.K) to 0.715 W/(m.K), and decreased the water absorption value from 10.43% to 3.02% when compared with the specimens incorporating 20 mass% COSA without nano-silica, respectively.
    The combination of 10 mass% FGD gypsum with 10 mass% COSA was the optimum mixture with an increased the compressive strength of 46.53 MPa. This strength improvement was attributed to the presence of portlandite, which was effectively consumed by CaSO₄·2H₂O, resulting in a decrease in hydration heat from 32°C to 21.5°C. In contrast, the addition of 10 mass% of β-hemihydrate to the mix resulted in the unsuccessful consumption of the portlandite (Ca(OH)2), leading to an increase in hydration heat from 32˚C to 39˚C. Consequently, the pozzolanic reaction was inhibited, causing a decreased in compressive strength of 39.6 MPa at 28 days.
    Moreover, the combination of 10 mass% FGD gypsum with 10 mass% COSA resulted in a decrease in the compressive strength from 46.53 MPa to 41.12 MPa after water curing. This reduction was attributed to the alkalis, such as calcium ion (Ca2+) from COSA and FGD, leaching out into the water. In contrast, all samples incorporating FGD and HH exhibited higher compressive strength, as sulfate ions (SO₄²⁻) within the samples prevented the alkalis from leaching. Consequently, the hydration products such as ettringite and C-S-H/C-A-S-H gel were observed in the mixture, with ettringite playing a role in filling the pores of the specimens.

    Tables of contents 摘要 i Abstract iii Personal Acknowledgements v Tables of contents vii List of symbols and abbreviations xi List of Tables xiii List of Figures xv Chapter 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Research background 1 1.2 Research Significance 6 1.3 Research aim 6 1.4 Research outline 7 Chapter 2 Literature Review 13 2.1 Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) 13 2.1.1 Physical and chemical of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) 13 2.1.2 Development of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) 14 2.2 Calcined oyster shell ash (COSA) 15 2.2.1 Physical and chemical properties of calcined oyster shell ash (COSA) 15 2.2.2 Development of Calcined Oyster Shell Ash (COSA) 16 2.3 Nano-silica 17 2.3.1 Physical and chemical properties of nano-silica 17 2.3.2 Development of nano-silica 17 2.4 Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) gypsum and β-hemihydrate 18 2.4.1 Physical and chemical properties of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum 18 2.4.2 Development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum 20 2.5 Development of curing method on alkali-activated binders 20 Chapter 3 Materials and Experimental Methods 33 3.1 Materials 33 3.2 Design of mixed proportion 36 3.3 Test methods 37 3.3.1 Methods of fresh properties analyses 37 3.3.1.1 Workability test 37 3.3.1.2 Setting time test 38 3.3.1.3 Isothermal calorimetry of paste specimen 39 3.3.2 Methods of hardened properties analyses 39 3.3.2.1 Compressive strength test 39 3.3.2.2 Splitting tensile strength test 40 3.3.2.3 Thermal conductivity test 40 3.3.2.4 Ultrasonic pulse velocity test 41 3.3.2.5 Drying shrinkage test 41 3.3.3 Microstructural analyses 42 3.3.3.1 Water absorption 42 3.3.3.2 Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry (MIP) 43 3.3.3.3 X-ray diffraction (XRD) test 43 3.3.3.4 Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) test 43 Chapter 4 Results and discussions of one-part alkali activator cured in room temperature 59 4.1 Fresh properties 59 4.1.1 Slump flow test 59 4.1.2 Setting times test 60 4.1.3 Isothermal calorimetry of paste 61 4.2 Hardened properties 63 4.2.1 Compressive strength and splitting tensile strength test 63 4.2.2 Thermal conductivity 65 4.2.3 Ultrasonic pulse velocity 67 4.2.4 Drying shrinkage 69 4.3 Microstructural analysis 69 4.3.1 Water absorption 69 4.3.2 Mercury intrusion porosity test 71 4.3.3 X-ray diffraction test (XRD) 72 4.3.4 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) 73 4.3.5 The Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) 74 Chapter 5 Results and discussions of one-part alkali activator cured in water and soaked in sulfate environment 115 5.1 Hardened properties 115 5.1.1 Compressive strength test 115 5.1.2 Thermal conductivity test 116 5.1.3 Soundness loss test 117 5.2 Microstructural analysis 117 5.2.1 Mercury intrusion porosity (MIP) 117 5.2.2 X-ray diffraction (XRD) 118 5.2.3 Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) 118 Chapter 6 Conclusion and suggestions 129 6.1 Conclusion 129 6.2 Suggestions 130 Acknowledgement 133 References 135

    References
    [1] Ahmad, S., A. Lawan, M. Al-Osta, Effect of sugar dosage on setting time, microstructure and strength of Type I and Type V Portland cements, Case Studies in Construction Materials 13 (2020) e00364. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cscm.2020.e00364.

    [2] Ali, M.B., R. Saidur, M.S. Hossain, A review on emission analysis in cement industries, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) 2252–2261. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2011.02.014.

    [3] ASTM C109/C109M-02, Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars, Annual Book of ASTM Standards 04 (2020) 9.

    [4] ASTM C191, Standard Test Methods for Time of Setting of Hydraulic Cement by Vicat Needle. USA: ASTM International, (2009). https://doi.org/10.1520/C0191-21.

    [5] ASTM C496, Standard Test Method for Splitting Tensile Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens 1, (2009), www.astm.org.

    [6] ASTM C511-03, Standard Specification for Mixing Rooms, Moist Cabinets, Moist Rooms, and Water Storage Tanks Used in the Testing of Hydraulic Cements and Concretes, American Society for Testing and Materials (2003) 1–3. https://doi.org/10.1520/C0511-19.2.

    [7] ASTM C596, Standard Test Method for Drying Shrinkage of Mortar Containing Hydraulic Cement 1, (2009). https://doi.org/10.1520/C0596-18.

    [8] ASTM C597, Standard Test Method for Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Through Concrete 1, (2023). https://doi.org/10.1520/C0597-22.

    [9] ASTM C989, Standard Specification for Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag for Use in Concrete and Mortars, ASTM International i (2005) 2–6. www.astm.org.

    [10] Athira, V.S., A. Bahurudeen, M. Saljas, K. Jayachandran, Influence of different curing methods on mechanical and durability properties of alkali activated binders, Construction Building Materials 299 (2021) 123963. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2021.123963.

    [11] Athira, V.S., V. Charitha, G. Athira, A. Bahurudeen, Agro-waste ash based alkali-activated binder: Cleaner production of zero cement concrete for construction, Journal of Cleaner Production 286 (2021) 125429. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.125429.

    [12] Bessenouci, M.Z., N.E. Bibi-Triki, S. Bendimerad, Z. Nakoul, S. Khelladi, A. Hakem, Influence of humidity on the apparent thermal conductivity of concrete pozzolan, in: Physics Procedia, Elsevier B.V., 2014: pp. 150–156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phpro.2014.07.022.

    [13] Björnström, J., A. Martinelli, A. Matic, L. Börjesson, I. Panas, Accelerating effects of colloidal nano-silica for beneficial calcium-silicate-hydrate formation in cement, Chemical Physics Letters 392 (2004) 242–248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cplett.2004.05.071.

    [14] Bondar, D., S. Nanukuttan, J.L. Provis, M. Soutsos, Efficient mix design of alkali activated slag concretes based on packing fraction of ingredients and paste thickness, Journal of Cleaner Production 218 (2019) 438–449. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.01.332.

    [15] Botta, R., F. Asche, J.S. Borsum, E. V. Camp, A review of global oyster aquaculture production and consumption, Material Policy 117 (2020) 103952. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2020.103952.

    [16] British Standards Institution., Specification for testing concrete. Part 122. Method for determination of water absorption., British Standards Institution, 1983.

    [17] Chandru, P., J. Karthikeyan, A.K. Sahu, K. Sharma, C. Natarajan, Some durability characteristics of ternary blended SCC containing crushed stone and induction furnace slag as coarse aggregate, Construction Building Materials 270 (2021) 121483. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.121483.

    [18] Cho, B.S., H.H. Lee, Y.C. Choi, Effects of aluminate rich slag on compressive strength, drying shrinkage and microstructure of blast furnace slag cement, Construction Building Materials 140 (2017) 293–300. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.02.111.

    [19] Davidovits J., Why alkali-activated materials (AAM) are not geopolymers, Technical papers 25, Geopolymer Institute Library, WWW. Geopolymer.org, DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.34337.25441

    [20] Deb, P.S., P.K. Sarker, S. Barbhuiya, Effects of nano-silica on the strength development of geopolymer cured at room temperature, Construction Building Materials 101 (2015) 675–683. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.10.044.

    [21] Djobo, Y.J.N., A. Elimbi, J. Dika Manga, I.B. Djon Li Ndjock, Partial replacement of volcanic ash by bauxite and calcined oyster shell in the synthesis of volcanic ash-based geopolymers, Construction Building Materials 113 (2016) 673–681. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.03.104.

    [22] Dong, M., M. Elchalakani, A. Karrech, Curing Conditions of Alkali-Activated Fly Ash and Slag Mortar, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 32 (2020) 6. https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)mt.1943-5533.0003233.

    [23] Du, S., Y. Ge, X. Shi, A targeted approach of employing nano-materials in high-volume fly ash concrete, Cement and Concrete Composites 104 (2019) 103390. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2019.103390.

    [24] Escalante-García, J.I., R.X. Magallanes-Rivera, A. Gorokhovsky, Waste gypsum-blast furnace slag cement in mortars with granulated slag and silica sand as aggregates, Construction Building Materials 23 (2009) 2851–2855. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2009.02.032.

    [25] Fang, S., E.S.S. Lam, B. Li, B. Wu, Effect of alkali contents, moduli and curing time on engineering properties of alkali activated slag, Construction Building Materials 249 (2020) 118799. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.118799.

    [26] Fu, H., C. Jia, Q. Chen, X. Cao, X. Zhang, Effect of particle size on the transformation kinetics of flue gas desulfurization gypsum to α-calcium sulfate hemihydrate under hydrothermal conditions, Particuology 40 (2018) 98–104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.partic.2017.10.004.

    [27] Gao, X., Q.L. Yu, H.J.H. Brouwers, Characterization of alkali activated slag-fly ash blends containing nano-silica, Construction Building Materials 98 (2015) 397–406. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.08.086.
    [28] Gao, X., Q.L. Yu, H.J.H. Brouwers, Reaction kinetics, gel character and strength of ambient temperature cured alkali activated slag-fly ash blends, Construction Building Material, 80 (2015) 105–115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.01.065.

    [29] Ge, W.Z., Zhang, A. Ashour, W. Li, H. Jiang, Y. Hu, H. Shuai, C. Sun, S. Li, Y. Liu, D. Cao, Hydration characteristics, hydration products and microstructure of reactive powder concrete, Journal of Building Engineering 69 (2023) 106306. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2023.106306.

    [30] Girish, M.G., K.K. Shetty, G. Nayak, Synthesis of Fly-ash and Slag Based Geopolymer Concrete for Rigid Pavement, Material Science and Engineering (2021) 012032. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2021.11.332.

    [31] Güçlüer, K., Investigation of the effects of aggregate textural properties on compressive strength (CS) and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) of concrete, Journal of Building Engineering 27 (2020) 100949. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2019.100949.

    [32] Hamdan, A., H. Song, Z. Yao, M.F. Alnahhal, T. Kim, A. Hajimohammadi, Modifications to reaction mechanisms, phase assemblages and mechanical properties of alkali-activated slags induced by gypsum addition, Cement Concrete Research,174 (2023) 107311. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2023.107311.

    [33] Han, Y., R. Lin, X.Y. Wang, Sustainable mixtures using waste oyster shell powder and slag instead of cement: Performance and multi-objective optimization design, Construction Building Materials 348 (2022) 128642. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2022.128642.

    [34] Hanjitsuwan, S., B. Injorhor, T. Phoo-ngernkham, N. Damrongwiriyanupap, L.-Y. Li, P. Sukontasukkul, P. Chindaprasirt, Drying shrinkage, strength and microstructure of alkali-activated high-calcium fly ash using FGD-gypsum and dolomite as expansive additive, Cement and Concrete Composites 114 (2020) 103760. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2020.103760.

    [35] Harutyunyan, V.S., XRD and combined SEM-EDS analysis of long-term hydration products of ye’elimite, Material Chemistry Physics 276 (2022) 125373. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2021.125373.

    [36] He J., W. Bai, W. Zheng, J. He, G. Sang, Influence of hydrated lime on mechanical and shrinkage properties of alkali-activated slag cement, Construction Building Materials 289 (2021) 123201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2021.123201.

    [37] Hou, W. J., Liu, Z. Liu, F. He, J. Zhu, Y. Cui, W. Jinyang, Calcium transfer process of cement paste for ettringite formation under different sulfate concentrations, Construction Building Materials 348 (2022) 128706. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2022.128706.

    [38] Hou, W.M., P.K. Chang, C.L. Hwang, A study on anticorrosion effect in high-performance concrete by the pozzolanic reaction of slag. Cement and Concrete Research (2004). Vol.34 Issue 4 pp. 615-622. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2003.10.007

    [39] Huanhai Z., X.Q. Wu, Z.Z. Xu, M.S. Tang, Kinetic study on hydration of alkali-activated slag. Cement and Concrete Research (1993). Vol.23 pp. 1253-1258. https://doi.org/10.1016/0008-8846(93)90062-E

    [40] Hussain, F., I. Kaur, A. Hussain, Reviewing the influence of GGBFS on concrete properties, Materials Today: Proceedings 32 (2020) 997–1004. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.07.410.

    [41] Jiang, L., C. Li, C. Wang, N. Xu, H. Chu, Utilization of flue gas desulfurization gypsum as an activation agent for high-volume slag concrete, Journal of Cleaner Production 205 (2018) 589–598. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.09.145.

    [42] Jo, B.W., C.H. Kim, G. ho Tae, J. Bin Park, Characteristics of cement mortar with nano-SiO2 particles, Construction Building Materials 21 (2007) 1351–1355. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2005.12.020.

    [43] Kang, S.M., S.H. Na, S.H. Lee, M.S. Song, W.G. Lee, Y.J. Song, Effects of ettringite formation on the compressive strength of mortar during activation of blast-furnace slag without ordinary Portland cement, Materials Research Innovations 19 (2015) 545–548. https://doi.org/10.1179/1432891715Z.0000000001746.

    [44] Kapeluszna, E., Ł. Kotwica, A. Różycka, Ł. Gołek, Incorporation of Al in C-A-S-H gels with various Ca/Si and Al/Si ratio: Microstructural and structural characteristics with DTA/TG, XRD, FTIR and TEM analysis, Construction Building Materials 155 (2017) 643–653. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.08.091.

    [45] Kaur K., J. Singh, M. Kaur, Compressive strength of rice husk ash based geopolymer: the effect of alkaline activator, Construction Building Materials 169 (2018) 188-192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.02.200

    [46] Kim, M.S., Y. Jun, C. Lee, J.E. Oh, Use of CaO as an activator for producing a price-competitive non-cement structural binder using ground granulated blast furnace slag, Cement Concrete Research 54 (2013) 208–214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2013.09.011.

    [47] Kolhe, S.S., T.P. Chang, C.T. Chen, J.Y. Shih, Potential application of thermally treated calcium carbide residue as solid CaO activator for No-cement slag-FGDG composite, Construction Building Materials 359 (2022) 129530. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2022.129530.

    [48] Koralegedara, N.H., P.X. Pinto, D.D. Dionysiou, S.R. Al-Abed, Recent advances in flue gas desulfurization gypsum processes and applications – A review, Journal of Environment Management 251 (2019) 109572. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.109572.

    [49] Lei, D.Y., L.P. Guo, W. Sun, J. ping Liu, C. wen Miao, Study on properties of untreated FGD gypsum-based high-strength building materials, Construction Building Materials 153 (2017) 765–773. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.07.166.

    [50] Li, G., Properties of high-volume fly ash concrete incorporating nano-SiO 2, Cement Concrete Research 34 (2004) 1043–1049. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2003.11.013.

    [51] Li, G., X. Xu, E. Chen, J. Fan, G. Xiong, Properties of cement-based bricks with oyster-shells ash, Journal of Cleaner Production 91 (2015) 279–287. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.12.023.

    [52] Liu, H.Y., H.S. Wu, C.P. Chou, Study on engineering and thermal properties of environment-friendly lightweight brick made from Kinmen oyster shells & sorghum waste, Construction Building Materials 246 (2020) 118367. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.118367.

    [53] Liu, S., W. Liu, F. Jiao, W. Qin, C. Yang, Production and resource utilization of flue gas desulfurized gypsum in China - A review, Environmental Pollution 288 (2021) 117799. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117799.

    [54] Luan, Y., J. Wang, T. Ma, S. Wang, C. Li, Modification mechanism of flue gas desulfurization gypsum on fly ash and ground granulated blast-furnace slag alkali-activated materials: Promoting green cementitious material, Construction Building Materials 396 (2023) 132400. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2023.132400.

    [55] Ma, D., W. Zhang, X. Wang, R. Zhang, Z. Zhou, Y. Yang, Y. Shi, Effects of curing temperature on mechanical properties and pore size distribution of cement clay modified by metakaolin and basalt fiber, Journal of Building Engineering 68 (2023) 106232. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2023.106232.

    [56] Magallanes-Rivera, R.X., J.I. Escalante-García, Hemihydrate or waste anhydrite in composite binders with blast-furnace slag: Hydration products, microstructures and dimensional stability, Construction Building Materials71 (2014) 317–326. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.08.054.

    [57] Malhotra, V.M., P. K. Mehta, Pozzolanic and cementitious materials, (2017), Taylor & Francis Group, Advances in concrete technology Volume 1, CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

    [58] Manojsuburam, R., E. Sakthivel, E. Jayanthimani, A study on the mechanical properties of alkali activated ground granulated blast furnace slag and fly ash concrete, Materials Today: Proceedings (2021) 1761-1764. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2021.12.328.

    [59] Mardani-Aghabaglou, A., O.C. Boyaci, H. Hosseinnezhad, B. Felekoʇlu, K. Ramyar, Effect of gypsum type on properties of cementitious materials containing high range water reducing admixture, Cement and Concrete Composites 68 (2016) 15–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2016.02.007.
    [60] Martínez-García, R., M.I. Sánchez de Rojas, P. Jagadesh, F. López-Gayarre, J.M. Morán-del-Pozo, A. Juan-Valdes, Effect of pores on the mechanical and durability properties on high strength recycled fine aggregate mortar, Case Studies in Construction Materials 16 (2022) e01050. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cscm.2022.e01050.

    [61] Mindess S., J.F. Young, D. Darwing, Concrete 2nd Edition, (1993). Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458, U.S.A.

    [62] Mukharjee, B.B., S. V. Barai, Assessment of the influence of Nano-Silica on the behavior of mortar using factorial design of experiments, Construction Building Materials 68 (2014) 416–425. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.06.074.

    [63] Naqi, A., S. Siddique, H.-K. Kim, J.G. Jang, Examining the potential of calcined oyster shell waste as additive in high volume slag cement, Construction Building Materials230 (2020) 116973. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.116973

    [64] Nigam, M., M. Verma, Effect of nano-silica on the fresh and mechanical properties of conventional concrete, Forces in Mechanics 10 (2023) 100165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.finmec.2022.100165.

    [65] Niş A., İ. Altındal, Compressive strength performance of alkali activated concretes under different curing conditions, Periodica Polytechnica Civil Engineering 65 (2021) 556–565. https://doi.org/10.3311/PPci.17016.

    [66] Qing, L., S. Shaokang, J. Zhen, W. Junxiang, L. Xianjun, Effect of CaO on hydration properties of one-part alkali-activated material prepared from tailings through alkaline hydrothermal activation, Construction Building Materials 308 (2021) 124931. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2021.124931.

    [67] Qing, Y., Z. Zenan, K. Deyu, C. Rongshen, Influence of nano-SiO2 addition on properties of hardened cement paste as compared with silica fume, Construction Building Materials 21 (2007) 539–545. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2005.09.001.

    [68] Qu, F., W. Li, Z. Tang, K. Wang, Property degradation of seawater sea sand cementitious mortar with GGBFS and glass fiber subjected to elevated temperatures, Journal of Materials Research and Technology 13 (2021) 366–384. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2021.04.068.
    [69] Qu, X., Z. Zhao, X. Yang, X. Li, S. Li, Z. Zhang, Heat release characteristics of lime and time-dependent rheological behaviors of lime-activated fly ash pastes, Case Studies in Construction Materials 16 (2022) 01043. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cscm.2022.e01043.

    [70] Ren, J., H. Sun, Q. Li, Z. Li, L. Ling, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, F. Xing, Experimental comparisons between one-part and normal (two-part) alkali-activated slag binders, Construction Building Materials 309 (2021) 125177. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2021.125177.

    [71] Rivero, A.J., R. Sathre, J. García Navarro, Life cycle energy and material flow implications of gypsum plasterboard recycling in the European Union, Resources, Conservation, and Recycling, 108 (2016) 171–181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2016.01.014.

    [72] Rodríguez, E.D., S.A. Bernal, J.L. Provis, J. Paya, J.M. Monzo, M.V. Borrachero, Effect of nanosilica-based activators on the performance of an alkali-activated fly ash binder, Cement and Concrete Composites 35 (2013) 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2012.08.025.

    [73] Sakir, S., S.N. Raman, A.B.M. Amrul Kaish, A.A. Mutalib, Calibration of ASTM C230 Cone for Measuring Flow Diameter of Self-flowing Mortar According to the EFNARC Recommendation, in: RILEM Bookseries, Springer Netherlands, 2020: pp. 266–272. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-22566-7_31.

    [74] Sanchez, F., K. Sobolev, Nanotechnology in concrete - A review, Construction Building Materials 24 (2010) 2060–2071.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.03.014.

    [75] Sargam, Y., K. Wang, Influence of dispersants and dispersion on properties of nanosilica modified cement-based materials, Cement and Concrete Composites 118 (2021) 103969. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2021.103969.

    [76] Seo, J.H., S.M. Park, B.J. Yang, J.G. Jang, Calcined oyster shell powder as an expansive additive in cement mortar, Materials 12 (2019) 1322. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12081322.

    [77] Shaikh, F.U.A., S.W.M. Supit, P.K. Sarker, A study on the effect of nano silica on compressive strength of high volume fly ash mortars and concretes, Mater & Design 60 (2014) 433–442. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2014.04.025.

    [78] Shin, A.H.C., U. Kodide, Thermal conductivity of ternary mixtures for concrete pavements, Cement and Concrete Composites 34 (2012) 575–582. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2011.11.009.

    [79] Shi, C. and R.L. Day, A calorimetric study of early hydration of alkali-slag cements, Cement and Concrete Research, (1995), Vol. 25 No.6 pp. 1333-1346. https://doi.org/10.1016/0008-8846(95)00126-WGet rights and content

    [80] Singh, M., M. Garg, Calcium sulfate hemihydrate activated low heat sulfate resistant cement, Construction Building Materials 16 (2002) 181-186. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0950-0618(01)00026-5

    [81] Singh, R.P., P.S. Reddy, K.R. Vanapalli, B. Mohanty, Influence of binder materials and alkali activatoron the strength and durability properties of geopolymer concrete: A review, Materials Today: Proceedings (2023). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2023.05.226.

    [82] Soriano L., A. Font, M.M. Tashima, J. Monzo, M.V. Borrachero, .T Bonifacio, J. Paya, Almond-shell niomass ash (ABA): A greener alternative to the use of commercial alkaline reagents in alkali-activated cements, Construction Building Materials 290, (2021), 123251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2021.123251

    [83] Souza, M.T., L. Onghero, R.D. Sakata, F.C. Neto, C.E.M. de Campos, J.R. de Castro Pessôa, W.L. Repette, A.P.N. de Oliveira, Insights into the acting mechanism of ettringite in expansive Portland cement, Materials Letters 345 (2023) 134496. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2023.134496.

    [84] Strydom C.A., and J.H. Potgieter, Dehydration behavior of a natural gypsum and a phosphogypsum during milling, Thermochimica Acta, (1999), Volume 332 Issue 1 pages, 89-96, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-6031(99)00083-0

    [85] Suwannasingha, N.; Kantavong, A.; Tunkijjanukij, S.; Aenglong, C.; Liu, H.-B.; Klaypradit, W. Effect of Calcination Temperature on Structure and Characteristics of Calcium Oxide Powder Derived from Marine Shell Waste. Journal of Saudi Chemical Society (2022) 26, 101441, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jscs.2022.101441

    [86] Tayeh, B.A., H.M. Hamada, I. Almeshal, B.H.A. Bakar, Durability and mechanical properties of cement concrete comprising pozzolanic materials with alkali-activated binder: A comprehensive review, Case Studies in Construction Materials 17 (2022) e01429. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cscm.2022.e01429.

    [87] Thymotie, A., T.P. Chang, H.A. Nguyen, Improving properties of high-volume fly ash cement paste blended with β-hemihydrate from flue gas desulfurization gypsum, Construction Building Materials 261 (2020) 120494. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.120494.

    [88] Vivek, D., K.S. Elango, K. Gokul Prasath, V. Ashik Saran, V.B. Ajeeth Divine Chakaravarthy, S. Abimanyu, Mechanical and durability studies of high performance concrete (HPC) with nano-silica, in: Material Today Proceedings, Elsevier Ltd, 2022: pp. 388–390. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2021.09.068.

    [89] Wang, J., E. Liu, L. Li, Characterization on the recycling of waste seashells with Portland cement towards sustainable cementitious materials, Journal of Cleaner Production 220 (2019) 235–252. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.02.122.

    [90] Wang, J., P. Du, Z. Zhou, D. Xu, N. Xie, X. Cheng, Effect of nano-silica on hydration, microstructure of alkali-activated slag, Construction Building Materials 220 (2019) 110–118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.05.158.

    [91] Wang, J., Y. Cheng, L. Yuan, D. Xu, P. Du, P. Hou, Z. Zhou, X. Cheng, S. Liu, Y. Wang, Effect of nano-silica on chemical and volume shrinkage of cement-based composites, Construction Building Materials 247 (2020) 118529. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.118529.

    [92] Wei, T., H. Zhao, C. Ma, A comparison of water curing and standard curing on one-part alkali-activated fly ash sinking beads and slag: Properties, microstructure and mechanisms, Construction Building Materials 273 (2021) 121715. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.121715.

    [93] Wentworth, W.E., E. Chen, Simple thermal decomposition reactions for storage of solar thermal energy, Solar Energy (1976) 205-214. https://doi.org/10.1016/0038-092X(76)90019-0

    [94] Wheaton F., Review of oyster shell properties: part II, Thermal properties, Aquacultural Engineering, (2007), Vol 37 Issue 1 Pages 14-23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaeng.2006.11.002

    [95] Xu, Y., X. Liu, Y. Zhang, B. Tang, E. Mukiza, Investigation on sulfate activation of electrolytic manganese residue on early activity of blast furnace slag in cement-based cementitious material, Construction Building Materials229 (2019) 116831. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.116831.

    [96] Xu, Z., Z. Zhou, P. Du, X. Cheng, Effects of nano-limestone on hydration properties of tricalcium silicate, J Therm Anal Calorim 129 (2017) 75–83. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-017-6123-9.

    [97] Xu, Z., J. Gao, Y. Zhao, S. Li, Z. Guo, X. Luo, G. Chen, Promoting utilization rate of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS): Incorporation of nanosilica to improve the properties of blended cement containing high volume GGBS, Journal of Cleaner Production 332 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2021.130096.

    [98] Xu, Z., Z. Zhou, P. Du, X. Cheng, Effects of nano-silica on hydration properties of tricalcium silicate, Construction Building Materials 125 (2016) 1169–1177. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.09.003.

    [99] Yan, J. Oyster Shell Soil Conditioner: Effects on Peanut Yield and Acidified Soil Amendment in Yellow Clayey Field. Journal of Agriculture 9 (2019) 17-20 https://doi.org/10.11923/j.issn.2095-4050.cjas20190700144

    [100]Yang, B., J.G. Jang, Environmentally benign production of one-part alkali-activated slag with calcined oyster shell as an activator, Construction Building Materials 257 (2020) 119552. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.119552.

    [101]Yang, H., D. Liang, Z. Deng, Y. Qin, Effect of limestone powder in manufactured sand on the hydration products and microstructure of recycled aggregate concrete, Construction Building Materials 188 (2018) 1045–1049. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.08.147

    [102]Yang, T., X. Gao, J. Zhang, X. Zhuang, H. Wang, Z. Zhang, Sulphate resistance of one-part geopolymer synthesized by calcium carbide residue-sodium carbonate-activation of slag, Composites Part B: Engineering 242 (2022) 110024. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2022.110024.

    [103] Ye, H., A. Radlińska, Shrinkage mechanisms of alkali-activated slag, Cement Concrete Research 88 (2016) 126–135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2016.07.001.

    [104] Zhang, G., H. Xia, H. Wang, L. Song, Y. Niu, D. Cao, H. Chen, Early hydration characteristics and kinetics model of cement pastes containing internal curing materials with different absorption behaviors, Construction Building Materials 383 (2023) 131412. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2023.131412.

    [105] Zhang, J., C. Shi, Z. Zhang, X. Hu, Reaction mechanism of sulfate attack on alkali-activated slag/fly ash cements, Construction Building Materials 318 (2022) 126052. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2021.126052.

    [106] Zhang, M.H., J. Islam, Use of nano-silica to reduce setting time and increase early strength of concretes with high volumes of fly ash or slag, Construction Building Materials 29 (2012) 573–580. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2011.11.013.

    [107] Zhong, S., K. Ni, J. Li, Properties of mortars made by uncalcined FGD gypsum-fly ash-ground granulated blast furnace slag composite binder, Waste Management 32 (2012) 1468–1472. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2012.02.014.

    無法下載圖示
    Full text public date This full text is not authorized to be published. (Internet public)
    Full text public date This full text is not authorized to be published. (National library)
    QR CODE